• 用药晚一步,起效来不及 2019-03-02
  • [新华网]重庆:深化投融资改革 促进企业去杠杆 2019-03-02
  • 他帖子里的明理,就是要人们放弃自己的利益,一切顺从别人的指挥棒转 2019-02-25
  • 运-20完成首次重装空投?为什么说这意义重大 2019-02-14
  • (两会受权发布)最高人民检察院检察长简历 2019-02-14
  • 习近平齐鲁之行的七个感人瞬间 2019-02-05
  • 全国首起公益诉讼调解结案案件:被告同意全部诉讼请求 2019-02-05
  • 大数据,贵在“融”和“用” 2019-01-20
  • 湖州市启动中小学生校外培训机构治理 2019-01-20
  • 牙生·司地克调研我市水资源管理保护工作 2019-01-12
  • 我看“支付宝回收垃圾”这件事不错,应该支持。[微笑][微笑] 首先是提高的回收效率,其次便于集中处理旧物品,防止污染有利。 2019-01-02
  • 楼市下半年或持续降温 房地产长效机制加速推进 2018-12-24
  • 人的本质的演变规律:从原始母系氏族社会的公有者经过父系氏族社会私有和公有双重所有者而演变为私有制阶级社会的私有者,然后经过现代社会公有和私有双重所有者... 2018-12-24
  • 《不起眼女主角培育法》宣布将推出剧场版动画 2018-12-14
  • 天气太热,警惕“冰箱病”,告诉你冰箱的正确使用方法! 2018-12-05
  • 腾讯分分彩是国家的吗:「经济学人」Teacher’s little helper

    来源:SOHU  [  作者:LearnAndRecord   ]  责编:杨丽  |  侵权/违法举报

    分分彩软件手机版 www.xpmw.net

    原标题:「经济学人」Teacher’s little helper

    Ed-tech

    In poor countries technology can make big improvements to education

    Teachers are often unqualified, ignorant or absent; tablets show up and work

    AT KICOSHEP SCHOOL in Kibera, a vast Nairobi slum, Grade 3 is learning English. The teacher, Jacinter Atieno, asks questions about a story on the exploitation of children as domestic servants. At the back of the class, a coach logs information about Mrs Atieno’s performance into a tablet. Halfway through the class, the coach summons three children and tests their reading. The scores go into the tablet, which then makes suggestions—that, say, Mrs Atieno might watch one of its instructional videos, or improve her English pronunciation with its letter-sound tool. The information is uploaded to the county office that runs the local schools, and can be reviewed by the teachers’ bosses there.

    This is Tusome—“let"s read”, in Kiswahili—in action. A huge programme, funded by USAID to the tune of $74m over five years, it has been adopted by the Kenyan government and is used by 3.4m children in 23,000 government primary schools and 1,500 private schools. The coach-and-tablet element is just one part. A curriculum based on synthetic phonics (widely used in developed-country schools) has been designed and 23m books distributed, along with detailed lesson plans to make life easier for teachers. But the technology is crucial to supporting them and providing their bosses with data about their performance. Mrs Atieno is surprisingly enthusiastic: “I love the coach. When I have a problem I can tell her and she comes to help me.”

    The costs are low—around $4 a child a year—and the results impressive. In the first year of Tusome’s operation, the proportion of Grade 2 pupils who could read at 30 words per minute (wpm) rose from around a third to two-thirds. Yet by rich-world standards these levels are poor: Americans are expected to read at 60wpm by the beginning of Grade 2 and 90wpm by the end. Even accounting for the difficulty of using a second language, the gap in attainment in rich and poor countries, even at the earliest stages, is staggering.

    Thanks in part to the challenge set by the Millennium Development Goals, almost all primary-age children almost everywhere in the world are now in school. But in many of those schools children are learning next to nothing. Research by the World Bank in seven sub-Saharan African countries, for instance, has found that half of Grade 4 students cannot read a simple word; almost three-quarters cannot read all the words in a simple sentence; 12% cannot recognise numbers; 24% cannot add single digits; and 70% cannot subtract double digits. It is not just Africa. A recent study in India shows that 38% of Grade 3 children in government schools cannot read simple words, and only 27% can do double-digit subtraction.

    The big problem is teachers: often too few, too ignorant—or simply not there. Unannounced visits to classes across seven sub-Saharan African countries by the World Bank found that in nearly half of them, the teacher was absent. Many teachers who do turn up are startlingly underqualified. In Bihar in northern India, for instance, only 11% of government-school teachers could solve a three-digit by one-digit division problem, and show the steps by which to do it.

    Paying teachers more is not likely to improve the situation. As research by Justin Sandefur of the Centre for Global Development shows, poor-country teachers tend to be remarkably well-paid, by local standards (see chart). And evidence from countries as diverse as Indonesia and Pakistan suggests that teachers’ pay levels have little impact on learning. Ideally, governments would invest in training teachers properly and promote or fire them on the basis of their performance. But the first of these ambitions requires levels of governance lacking in many developing countries, and a time-horizon beyond that of many elected governments. The second is often politically unrealistic: teachers’ unions can be exceedingly powerful outfits for a range of reasons—including that polling stations are often located in schools and run by teachers.

    Tech is not a substitute for well-qualified, motivated teachers, but—used appropriately—can mitigate the problems. The qualifier is important. In 2006 Nicholas Negroponte, founder of the MIT media lab, launched the One Laptop Per Child (OLPC) initiative to put computers in the hands of the world’s poor children, saying: “We will literally take tablets and drop them out of helicopters.” They did not, literally; but even when cheap laptops were delivered (by road) to poor-country schools, they did not improve learning levels. In Uruguay, for instance, 1m were distributed, but they had no impact on test scores.

    OLPC illustrates what Michael Trucano, ed-tech specialist at the World Bank, regards as a basic law of tech interventions: “If you dump hardware in schools, and expect something magical to happen as a result—it won’t.” But he also believes that “successful systems are the ones that fail, learn quickly from failure and make improvements based on what’s been learned.”

    Recent studies suggest that some places are at last getting it right—and that tech helps most in poor countries. A survey of ed-tech initiatives around the world by George Bulman and Robert Fairlie of the University of California, Santa Cruz, published by America’s National Bureau of Economic Research, a think-tank, found that “evidence of positive effects appears to be the strongest in developing countries”. They suggested this might be because “the instruction that is being substituted for is not as of high quality in these countries.”

    Tech can help solve many of the problems that developing-country education systems face. Take teacher absenteeism. The data the Tusome coach logs into her tablet, combined with GPS, tell the county education director whether the teacher and the coach were on duty. Some counties do nothing with the data; some use it to hold educators accountable. (Teachers are not fired—their union is too powerful—but some coaches have been.)

    Technology can also help teachers manage a wide range of abilities in a class. In India, for instance, more than half of those in Grade 5 cannot read at Grade 2 level. If children never learn to read properly, they are doomed economically. In a big test among randomly selected children in government schools in Delhi, Mindspark, an interactive software developed in India, has been shown to make a big difference. It sets students work suitable to their level. The weakest children benefited most. If software can help stop children from dropping through the net, that is a massive gain.

    Tech can also ease the burden of overloaded teachers. Interactive software produced by onebillion, a British non-profit group, has been tested in Malawi, where the average primary-school class has 76 pupils in it. Andrew Ashe, onebillion’s co-founder, says he has seen a class of 250. For the onebillion trial, children were taken out of their huge classes, put in groups of 25 and given tablets loaded with maths software; similar-sized groups were given tablets without the maths software, to control for the possibility that children might benefit from any instruction given in smaller groups. Those with the maths software made significant gains.

    Onebillion’s software is among five systems undergoing the toughest test of all: teaching children in the absence of any teachers. They are finalists in the Global Learning XPrize, sponsored by Elon Musk, a Silicon Valley mogul. They are being tested in 150 remote villages in Tanzania that have no schools. A “solar mama” in each village is given a charger, and hands tablets to the children every morning and collects them every evening. The $10m prize will go to the software that most successfully enables children to read, write and do simple maths problems in the absence of a teacher. The data on learning will be collected in March. In the meantime the behaviour of the 3,000 children in the trial is being studied. Emily Church of the XPrize Foundation says they are showing more respect, obedience and confidence, and are “bathing before using the tablets, and dressing as though they were going to school.”

    Systems such as Mindspark’s and onebillion’s can also help overcome basic teacher ignorance. Good software, unlike many poor-country teachers, can do its sums correctly, spell, compose a grammatical sentence and offer a wide range of information through videos. Rich-country parents might tut at their children being taught by computers. But if the alternative is an ill-educated teacher, well-designed software may be a better option. Pranav Kothari of Mindspark says ed-tech is much more useful in India than in, say, Singapore: “In India, we need 9m teachers, but we don’t have 9m people who can teach.”

    But designing the right software gets you only so far. One of the lessons from Tusome is that in order to make a big difference, tech innovations need the acceptance of teachers and administrators. RTI International, the American non-profit group that devised Tusome, worked for years within the education system, testing different versions, and even got the approval of the local teachers’ union. That is how it got into 23,000 public schools, not the usual handful in a short-lived pilot project.

    This year Mindspark is being tried in government schools in the northern Indian state of Rajasthan. At the primary school in Ghanghu, a village in a desert landscape where camels nibble loftily at thorn-tree branches, children sit in the “Mindspark lab”—a bare room with tablets on desks around the walls—doing sums, playing learning games and watching videos. They are not familiar with tech—none reported having been on the internet—but seem to like it. “In every story I learn new words and their meaning,” says 12-year-old Chanda. Mohit, 14, reckons, “It’s good because the teacher isn’t there, so you’re not scared of getting the wrong answer.” A Mindspark assistant is always present, so the children get on with their work even without teachers. “It’s a normal school,” says one of the Mindspark staff. “The teachers are there three or four days out of six.”

    Ravindra Sharma, the head teacher, is enthusiastic. The children like the tablets, the villagers are interested, and Mindspark has made his school more popular. Enrolment at most government schools in Rajasthan is falling, as more and more parents send their children to private schools. But his rolls have increased from 130 to 143 this year. He hopes that Mindspark is there to stay. Since the costs—$15 per child per year—are not enormous, the studies suggest it is effective and the state government seems to be determined to improve learning outcomes, he may be in luck.

    On a shelf above his head, however, sits a memento mori for an ed-tech project: a computer monitor still in its box, covered in dust and detritus. Mr Sharma consults his staff about how long it has been there. They think it was part of a government initiative around ten years ago. But memories of the programme, and of what happened to it, have faded into the mists of time.

    This article appeared in the International section of the print edition under the headline "Teacher’s little helper" (Nov 15th 2018)

    分分彩软件手机版 www.xpmw.net true //www.xpmw.net/seduzx/627280/276743392.html report 11774 为您提供全方面的「经济学人」Teacher’s little helper相关信息,根据用户需求提供「经济学人」Teacher’s little helper最新最全信息,解决用户的「经济学人」Teacher’s little helper需求,原标题:「经济学人」Teacher’slittlehelperEd-techInpoorcountriestechnologycanmakebigimprovementstoeducationTeachersareoftenunqu...
    • 猜你喜欢
      • 24小时热文
      • 本周热评
        图文推荐
        • 最新添加
        • 最热文章
          精彩推荐
          读过此文的还读过
            教育资格教育大全EDU资格考试考试高考考试EDU教育考试教育|教育|天文|地球科学|物理|农业|生物|社会学|培训|数学|科学技术|环境学|心理学|职业教育|升学入学|化学|外语学习|医学|语文|纺织|建筑学|出国留学教育科学艺术文学地球科学化学环境科学建筑学科技留学农业培训社会学生物升学数学天文学外语物理心理学医学语文职业教育美术书法外国文学戏剧中国文学教育/科学高考菁菁校园人文学科理工学科外语学习辅助考研/考证公务员留学/出国 考试 作业作业2作业3幼儿教育幼儿读物少儿英语唐诗宋词育儿理论经验育儿知识家庭教育小升初学科竞赛其它课程小学教育初中教育中考科学学科竞赛其它课程高中教育学科竞赛其它课程职业教育中职中专职高对口职业技术培训其他成人教育成人考试电大自考专升本远程、网络教育高等教育理学工学经济学管理学文学哲学历史学法学教育学农业医学军事艺术研究生入学考试院校资料其它人文社科法律资料军事/政治广告/传媒设计/艺术教育学/心理学社会学文化/宗教哲学/历史文学研究经管营销人力资源管理财务管理生产/经营管理企业管理公共/行政管理销售/营销金融/投资经济/市场工程科技信息与通信电子/电路建筑/土木城乡/园林规划环境/食品科学电力/水利交通运输能源/化工机械/仪表冶金/矿山/地质纺织/轻工业材料科学兵器/核科学IT/计算机互联网电脑基础知识软件及应用硬件及网络自然科学数学物理化学生物学天文/地理医药卫生临床医学基础医学预防医学中医中药药学农林牧渔农学林学畜牧兽医水产渔业求职/职场简历封面/模板求职/面试职业规划自我管理与提升计划/解决方案学习计划工作计划解决方案商业计划营销/活动策划总结/汇报学习总结实习总结工作总结/汇报党团工作入党/转正申请思想汇报/心得体会党团建设工作范文制度/规范演讲/主持行政公文表格/模板合同协议书信模板表格类模板饮食游戏体育/运动音乐旅游购物娱乐时尚美容化妆影视/动漫保健养生随笔幽默滑稽语文一年级语文二年级语文三年级语文四年级语文五年级语文六年级语文数学一年级数学二年级数学三年级数学四年级数学五年级数学六年级数学英语一年级英语二年级英语三年级英语四年级英语五年级英语六年级英语一年级其它课程二年级其它课程三年级其它课程四年级其它课程五年级其它课程六年级其它课程小学作文语文初一语文初二语文初三语文数学初一数学初二数学初三数学英语初一英语初二英语初三英语政史地初一政史地初二政史地初三政史地理化生初一理化生初二理化生初三理化生初中作文语文高一语文高二语文高三语文数学高一数学高二数学高三数学英语高一英语高二英语高三英语政史地高一政史地高二政史地高三政史地理化生高一理化生高二理化生高三理化生高中作文高考外语学习英语考试英语学习日语学习法语学习韩语学习其它语言学习资格考试/认证IT认证公务员考试司法考试财会/金融考试从业资格考试交规考试其它考试教学研究教学案例/设计教学计划教学反思/汇报PPT模板商务科技简洁抽象艺术创意可爱清新节日庆典卡通动漫自然景观动物植物中国风国外设计风格动态背景图表模板其它模板PPT制作技巧图片/文字技巧动画/交互技巧音频/视频技巧其它技巧笔试社交礼仪其它其它其它其它调查/报告法律文书调解书判决书起诉状辩护词家居家电社会民生 文库教育文档幼儿教育小学教育初中教育高中教育高等教育教学研究外语学习资格考试/认证成人教育职业教育IT/计算机经管营销医药卫生自然科学农林牧渔人文社科工程科技PPT模板PPT制作技巧求职/职场计划/解决方案总结/汇报党团工作工作范文表格/模板法律文书饮食游戏体育/运动音乐旅游购物娱乐时尚美容化妆家具家电社会民生影视/动漫保健养生随笔摄影摄像幽默滑稽 小学作文初中作文高中作文话题作文考试作文单元作文作文素材儿童教育 教学设计文库22 34 56 78 910 1112 1314 15文库2文库作文总结建筑资料库考研14综合范文 教学方法综合教案英语学习学习中心教育资讯1教育资讯1 考试 课题研究课件下载考试试卷留学类日记语文教学资源托福知道 教育论文教育生活学习方法模拟考教育教育资讯1英语作文 日常工作资源公务员考试简笔画考试作文问答 资讯综合学习学习考试学习方法学习问答外语学习资格考试职场学习交流高考清华大学复旦大学毕业季厦门大学浙江大学武汉大学作文南京大学五道口职业技术学校翻译韩语英语英文名日语英语翻译教师资格证智联招聘前程无忧语文日记数学读后感读书笔记
          • 用药晚一步,起效来不及 2019-03-02
          • [新华网]重庆:深化投融资改革 促进企业去杠杆 2019-03-02
          • 他帖子里的明理,就是要人们放弃自己的利益,一切顺从别人的指挥棒转 2019-02-25
          • 运-20完成首次重装空投?为什么说这意义重大 2019-02-14
          • (两会受权发布)最高人民检察院检察长简历 2019-02-14
          • 习近平齐鲁之行的七个感人瞬间 2019-02-05
          • 全国首起公益诉讼调解结案案件:被告同意全部诉讼请求 2019-02-05
          • 大数据,贵在“融”和“用” 2019-01-20
          • 湖州市启动中小学生校外培训机构治理 2019-01-20
          • 牙生·司地克调研我市水资源管理保护工作 2019-01-12
          • 我看“支付宝回收垃圾”这件事不错,应该支持。[微笑][微笑] 首先是提高的回收效率,其次便于集中处理旧物品,防止污染有利。 2019-01-02
          • 楼市下半年或持续降温 房地产长效机制加速推进 2018-12-24
          • 人的本质的演变规律:从原始母系氏族社会的公有者经过父系氏族社会私有和公有双重所有者而演变为私有制阶级社会的私有者,然后经过现代社会公有和私有双重所有者... 2018-12-24
          • 《不起眼女主角培育法》宣布将推出剧场版动画 2018-12-14
          • 天气太热,警惕“冰箱病”,告诉你冰箱的正确使用方法! 2018-12-05