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  • 分分彩技巧 个人经验:超级学长100篇雅思阅读精读汇总

    来源:SOHU  [  作者:超级学长语培中心   ]  责编:王强  |  侵权/违法举报

    分分彩软件手机版 www.xpmw.net

    原标题:超级学长100篇雅思阅读精读汇总

    Passage One (Clinton Is Right)

    President Clinton’s decision on Apr.8 to send Chinese Premier Zhu Rongji packing without an agreement on China’s entry into the World Trade Organization seemed to be a massive miscalculation. The President took a drubbing from much of the press, which had breathlessly reported that a deal was in the bag. The Cabinet and Whit House still appeared divided, and business leaders were characterized as furious over the lost opportunity. Zhu charged that Clinton lacked “the courage” to reach an accord. And when Clinton later telephoned the angry Zhu to pledge a renewed effort at negotiations, the gesture was widely portrayed as a flip-flop.

    In fact, Clinton made the right decision in holding out for a better WTO deal. A lot more horse trading is needed before a final agreement can be reached. And without the Administration’s goal of a “bullet-proof agreement” that business lobbyists can enthusiastically sell to a Republican Congress, the whole process will end up in partisan acrimony that could harm relations with China for years.

    THE HARD PART. Many business lobbyists, while disappointed that the deal was not closed, agree that better terms can still be had. And Treasury Secretary Robert E. Rubin, National Economic Council Director Gene B. Sperling, Commerce Secretary William M. Daley, and top trade negotiator Charlene Barshefsky all advised Clinton that while the Chinese had made a remarkable number of concessions, “we’re not there yet,” according to senior officials.

    Negotiating with Zhu over the remaining issues may be the easy part. Although Clinton can signal U.S. approval for China’s entry into the WTO himself, he needs Congress to grant Beijing permanent most-favored-nation status as part of a broad trade accord. And the temptation for meddling on Capital Hill may prove over-whelming. Zhu had barely landed before Senate Majority Leader Trent Lott (R-Miss) declared himself skeptical that China deserved entry into the WTO. And Senators Jesse A. Helms (R-N.C.) and Emest F. Hollings (D-S. C.) promised to introduce a bill requiring congressional approval of any deal.

    The hidden message from these three textile-state Southerners: Get more protection for the U. S. clothing industry. Hoping to smooth the way, the Administration tried, but failed, to budge Zhu on textiles. Also left in the lurch: Wall Street, Hollywood, and Detroit. Zhu refused to open up much of the lucrative Chinese securities market and insisted on “cultural” restrictions on American movies and music. He also blocked efforts to allow U. S. auto makers to provide fleet financing.

    BIG JOB. Already, business lobbyists are blanketing Capitol Hill to presale any eventual agreement, but what they’ve heard so far isn’t encouraging. Republicans, including Lott, say that “the time just isn’t right” for the deal. Translation: We’re determined to make it look as if Clinton has capitulated to the Chinese and is ignoring human, religious, and labor rights violations; the theft of nuclear-weapons technology; and the sale of missile parts to America’s enemies. Beijing’s fierce critics within the Democratic Party, such as Senator Paul D. Wellstone of Minnesota and House Minority leader Richard A. Gephardt of Missouri, won’t help, either.

    Just how tough the lobbying job on Capitol Hill will be become clear on Apr. 20, when Rubin lectured 19chief executives on the need to discipline their Republican allies. With business and the White House still trading charges over who is responsible for the defeat of fast-track trade negotiating legislation in 1997, working together won’t be easy. And Republicans—with a wink—say that they’ll eventually embrace China’s entry into the WTO as a favor to Corporate America. Though not long before they torture Clinton. But Zhu is out on a limb, and if Congress overdoes the criticism, he may be forced by domestic critics to renege. Business must make this much dear to both its GOP allies and the Whit House: This historic deal is too important to risk losing to any more partisan squabbling

    1. The main idea of this passage is

    [A]. The Contradiction between the Democratic Party and the Republican Party.

    [B]. On China’s entry into WTO.

    [C]. Clinton was right.

    [D]. Business Lobbyists Control Capitol Hill.

    2. What does the sentence “Also left in the lurch: Wall Street, Hollywood, Detroit” convey?

    [A]. Premier Zhu rejected their requirements.

    [B]. The three places overdid criticism.

    [C]. They wanted more protection.

    [D]. They are in trouble.

    3. What was the attitude of the Republican Party toward China’s entry into the WTO?

    [A]. Contradictory. [B].Appreciative.

    [C]. Disapproving. [D]. Detestful.

    4. Who plays the leading part in the deal in America?

    [A]. White House . [B]. Republicans.

    [C]. The Democratic Party. [D]. Businessmen.

    5. It can be inferred from the passage that

    [A]. America will make concessions.

    [B]. America will hold out for a better WTO

    [C]. Clinton has the right to signal U. S. approval for China’s entry.

    [D]. Democratic party approve China’s entry into the WTO.

    Vocabulary

    1. drubbing 痛打

    get/take a drabbing 遭人痛打

    2. flip-flop=great change suddenly 游说,突然改变,突然反方向。人字拖鞋,趾拖鞋

    3. hold out 维持,保持

    hold out for sth. 故意拖延达成协议以谋求……

    4. horse –trading 精明的讨价还价

    5. bullet-proof 防弹的

    6. lobby 收买,暗中活动

    7. lobbyist 院外活动集团成员

    8. partisan 党人,帮派,是党派强硬支持者

    9. acrimony 语言/态度的刻薄

    10. sell to 说服(某人)接受或采用

    11. meddle 干预

    12. Capitol Hill 美国国会

    13. budge 使稍微移动,改变

    14. lucrative 有利可图的,赚钱的

    15. block 制止

    16. fleet 舰队,船队,车队,机队

    17. blanket 覆盖,妨碍扫兴,扑灭

    18. Capitulate 投降,停止抵抗

    19. fast track 快速行程(轻车熟路)

    20. with a wink 眼睛一眨,很快的

    21. out on a limb 孤立无援(尤指争论和意见上)

    22. renege 违约

    23. squabble 争吵

    难句译注

    1. President Clinton’s decision on Apr.8 to send Chinese Premier Zhu Rongji packing without an agreement…

    [结构分析] send one packing 打发人走。

    [参考译文] 克林顿于4月8日决定不达成中国加入世贸组织的协议便打发中国总理朱容基走人。

    2. The President took a drubbing from much of the press, which had breathlessly reported that a deal was in the bag.

    [结构简析] in the bag 倒手,囊中之物。

    [参考译文] 总统遭到许多报界舆论的抨击,它们曾报道过这桩买卖(入世贸)已是囊中之物。

    3. Zhu charged that Clinton lacked “the courage” to reach an accord.

    [参考译文] 朱指责克林顿缺乏达成协议的勇气。

    4. the gesture was widely portrayed as a flip-flop

    [参考译文] 普遍认为总统的姿态来了一个一百八十度的转弯。

    5. Clinton made the right decision in holding out for a better WTO deal.

    [参考译文] 总统故意拖延协议以谋取一笔更好的入世贸组织交易的决定完全正确。

    6. And without the Administration’s goal of a “bullet-proof agreement” that business lobbyists can enthusiastically sell to a Republican Congress, the whole process will end up in partisan acrimony that could harm relations with China for years.

    [参考译文] 没有商界院外活动集团成员热情的劝说共和党国会采纳政府目标中的防弹性(?;ば裕┬?,那么整个过程将会以党派之间的尖刻的争吵而结束,这会影响以后多年和中国的关系。

    7. the Administration tried, but failed, to budge Zhu on textiles.

    [参考译文] 美国政府希望(为纺织业)铺平道路,试图使朱在纺织品上让步,结果失败。

    8. Also left in the lurch: Wall Street, Hollywood, and Detroit.

    [结构简析] 这句句子连接上文而说。

    Leave sb. In the lurch 固定用法,义:置某人于困难之中弃之不顾,遗弃某人。完整句型应该是:Wall Street, Hollywood and Detrait are also left in the lurch.

    [参考译文] 同样也陷于困境的有华尔街,好莱坞和底特律。

    9. Zhu refused to open up much of the lucrative Chinese securities market and insisted on “cultural” restrictions on American movies and music. He also blocked efforts to allow U. S. auto makers to provide fleet financing.

    [参考译文] 朱容基总理不允许开放金融股票市场,坚持对美国电影和音乐作文化方面的限制规定,不让美国汽车商染指投资汽车。

    10. Translation. 翻译。这是作者为共和党的“The time isn’t right”做注解/解释。

    写作方法与文章大意

    文章以先声夺人的写作手法:克林顿不同意中国加入世贸打发朱总理回国引出两党(共和党和民主党)矛盾,国会和白宫之相反意见(对比写法)到最终四方趋向一致来证明总统决定是对的——以最好的价码使美国获得最佳利益为前提同意中国加入世贸来满足美国商人的要求。

    答案祥解

    1. C. 总统是对的。这篇文章摘自Business Weekly. 文章是从商人的角度来看待中国加入WTO,他们希望从谈判中获得更多的利益,而克林顿的同意不同意的目的和他们相符——争取更多利益。这篇就是从四方利益最终趋向一致“同意中国加入世贸”来证明“总统结论正确”的中心思想。

    第一段指出Clinton由打发朱总理回国,不同意中国入世到一百八十度大转弯,在电话中愤怒的朱总理表示再次努力协商。内阁和白宫官员意见分歧,商人对失去机会火冒三丈。

    第二段点出克林顿故意拖延以谋取更多的利益的决定是正确的——文章的主旨句。商人院外活动集团成员要以“政府完美无缺的协议的目标来说服共和党赞成/接受。以免整个过程以党争而告终。

    第三,四段是商业方面的高级官员的代表纷纷却说Clinton“当中国作出许多优惠让步时,美国不在那里?!保ㄒ猓好拦钥髁讼衷诓灰俪钥髁?。)克林顿有权签署赞成中国加入世贸组织,可他需要国会批准北京永久性最惠国作为扩大贸易协定的组成部分。再说对国会的干预的诱惑力相当大:就在朱踏上美国本土时,参议院多数派领袖Trent Lott宣布他对中国是该不该入世持怀疑态度,而参议院Tesse A Helms… 承诺提出一项要求国会批准任何交易的提案。

    第五段讲了朱总理的强硬立场。第六段又是共和党的反对声,使民主党内站在北京以便的批评家也无能为力。

    最后一段指出:尽管困难重重,这一历史事件太重要了,不能因党争而冒失失去机会的危险。

    A. 民主党和共和党的矛盾。两党之争见上文译注,最终还是一致。 B. 论中国加入世贸组织。文章不是论中国加入而是论美国环绕中国入世贸的种种。 D. 商人院外活动集团成员控制国会。这在第五段中提到商人院外活动集团成员阻挠美国国会事先接受最终协议,但不是主题思想。

    2. A. 朱总理拒绝了他们的要求。见难句译注9。

    B. 这三个地方批评过头。 C. 他们要求更多的?;?。 D. 他们陷入困境。

    3. A. 矛盾。共和党一开始就反对。什么对中国该不该加入世贸组织持怀疑态度。第六段说得更露骨,时间不对。意思是他们想把整个事件看起来好象克林顿屈从于中国,忽视了“中国违反人权,宗教权,劳动权,偷窃核武器技术,把导弹组成部件买给美国的敌人”等事实。最后一段共和党一下子又所他们最终将会接受中国加入世贸组织以表示对整体美国的好感。不管是商人院外活动集团的作用,还是明确指出重开谈判的重要性。这一历史事件太重要绝不能因党争而失去机会。共和党纵然心中不愿,也不得不接受现实。心情是矛盾的。

    B. 赞赏。 C. 不赞成。 D. 厌恶。

    4. D. 商界。第一段中就点出:商界领袖对失去这次机会火冒三丈。第二段中提到商界院外活动成员要以实实在在的协议来说服共和党国会,免得以党争告终。第三段明确指出:许多商界院外人士一方面对协议未签定表示失望,另方面又同意,还会更好的条件。各种和商界直接关系的高级官员对克林顿劝说。

    第五段:纺织,金融股票,汽车以至电影等都是商界的要求。朱总理拒绝的就是商界要求。

    第六段提及商界院外活动的成员制止国会事先接受最终协定。

    最后一段又是商界使共和党联盟和白宫懂得此事的重要性。

    5. A. 美国将会作出让步,见上面注释。商人是绝对不会放弃中国市场的。

    B. 美国会故意拖延以求取得更好的条件。这一点恐怕不会,见上文注释。朱总理的强硬立场,商人的见解。 C. 克林顿有签署批准中国入世之权。 D. 民主党赞成中国加入世贸,这两项都是事实。

    Passage Two (Europe’s Gypsies, Are They a Nation?)

    The striving of countries in Central Europe to enter the European Union may offer an unprecedented chance to the continent’s Gypsies (or Roman) to be recognized as a nation, albeit one without a defined territory. And if they were to achieve that they might even seek some kind of formal place—at least a total population outnumbers that of many of the Union’s present and future countries. Some experts put the figure at 4m-plus; some proponents of Gypsy rights go as high as 15m.

    Unlike Jews, Gypsies have had no known ancestral land to hark back to. Though their language is related to Hindi, their territorial origins are misty. Romanian peasants held them to be born on the moon. Other Europeans (wrongly) thought them migrant Egyptians, hence the derivative Gypsy. Most probably they were itinerant metal workers and entertainers who drifted west from India in the 7th century.

    However, since communism in Central Europe collapsed a decade ago, the notion of Romanestan as a landless nation founded on Gypsy culture has gained ground. The International Romany Union, which says it stands for 10m Gypsies in more than 30 countries, is fostering the idea of “self-rallying”. It is trying to promote a standard and written form of the language; it waves a Gypsy flag (green with a wheel) when it lobbies in such places as the United Bations; and in July it held a congress in Prague, The Czech capital. Where President Vaclav Havel said that Gypsies in his own country and elsewhere should have a better deal.

    At the congress a Slovak-born lawyer, Emil Scuka, was elected president of the International Tomany Union. Later this month a group of elected Gypsy politicians, including members of parliament, mayors and local councilors from all over Europe (OSCE), to discuss how to persuade more Gypsies to get involved in politics.

    The International Romany Union is probably the most representative of the outfits that speak for Gypsies, but that is not saying a lot. Of the several hundred delegates who gathered at its congress, few were democratically elected; oddly, none came from Hungary, whose Gypsies are perhaps the world’s best organized, with some 450 Gypsy bodies advising local councils there. The union did, however, announce its ambition to set up a parliament, but how it would actually be elected was left undecided.

    So far, the European Commission is wary of encouraging Gypsies to present themselves as a nation. The might, it is feared, open a Pandora’s box already containing Basques, Corsicans and other awkward peoples. Besides, acknowledging Gypsies as a nation might backfire, just when several countries, particularly Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic, are beginning to treat them better, in order to qualify for EU membership. “The EU’s whole premise is to overcome differences, not to highlight them,” says a nervous Eurocrat.

    But the idea that the Gypsies should win some kind of special recognition as Europe’s largest continent wide minority, and one with a terrible history of persecution, is catching on . Gypsies have suffered many pogroms over the centuries. In Romania, the country that still has the largest number of them (more than 1m), in the 19th century they were actually enslaved. Hitler tried to wipe them out, along with the Jews.

    “Gypsies deserve some space within European structures,” says Jan Marinus Wiersma, a Dutchman in the European Parliament who suggests that one of the current commissioners should be responsible for Gypsy affairs. Some prominent Gypsies say they should be more directly represented, perhaps with a quota in the European Parliament. That, they argue, might give them a boost. There are moves afoot to help them to get money for, among other things, a Gypsy university.

    One big snag is that Europe’s Gypsies are, in fact, extremely heterogeneous. They belong to many different, and often antagonistic, clans and tribes, with no common language or religion, Their self-proclaimed leaders have often proved quarrelsome and corrupt. Still, says, Dimitrina Petrova, head of the European Roma Rights Center in Budapest, Gypsies’ shared experience of suffering entitles them to talk of one nation; their potential unity, she says, stems from “being regarded as sub-human by most majorities in Europe.”

    And they have begun to be a bit more pragmatic. In Slovakia and Bulgaria, for instance, Gypsy political parties are trying to form electoral blocks that could win seats in parliament. In Macedonia, a Gypsy party already has some—and even runs a municipality. Nicholas Gheorge, an expert on Gypsy affairs at the OSCE, reckons that, spread over Central Europe, there are now about 20 Gypsy MPS and mayors, 400-odd local councilors, and a growing number of businessmen and intellectuals.

    That is far from saying that they have the people or the cash to forge a nation. But, with the Gypsy question on the EU’s agenda in Central Europe, they are making ground.

    1. The Best Title of this passage is

    [A]. Gypsies Want to Form a Nation. [B]. Are They a Nation.

    [C]. EU Is Afraid of Their Growth. [C]. They Are a Tribe

    2. Where are the most probable Gypsy territory origins?

    [A]. Most probably they drifted west from India in the 7th century.

    [B]. They are scattered everywhere in the world.

    [C]. Probably, they stemmed from Central Europe.

    [D]. They probably came from the International Romany Union.

    3. What does the International Romany lobby for?

    [A]. It lobbies for a demand to be accepted by such international organizations as EU and UN.

    [B]. It lobbies for a post in any international Romany Union.

    [C]. It lobbies for the right as a nation.

    [D]. It lobbies for a place in such international organizations as the EU or UN.

    4. Why is the Europe Commission wary of encouraging Gypsies to present themselves as a nation?

    [A]. It may open a Pandora’s Box.

    [B]. Encouragement may lead to some unexpected results.

    [C]. It fears that the Basgnes, Corsicans and other nations seeking separation may raise the same demand.

    [D]. Gyspsies’ demand may highlight the difference in the EU.

    5. The big problem lies in the fact that

    [A]. Gypsies belong to different and antagonistic clans and tribes without a common language or religion.

    [B]. Their leaders prove corrupt.

    [C]. Their potential unity stems from “being regarded as sub-human”.

    [D]. They are a bit more pragmatic.

    Vocabulary

    1. albeit 尽管,虽然

    2. outnumber 数字上超过

    3. ethnic 少数民族的成员,种族集团的成员

    4. Hindi 印地语

    5. misty 模糊不清的,朦胧的

    6. derivative 衍生的,派生的

    7. itinerant 逻辑的

    8. Romanesten 说吉普塞语的地方

    Romanes 吉普塞语

    Stan 地方

    9. outfit (口)组织,(协同工作)的集体

    10. local 地方(市,镇,县)政务委员会

    11. wary 谨慎的,机警的

    12. backfire 产生出乎意料或事与愿违的结果

    13. highlight 强调

    14. persecution 迫害

    15. catch on 了解,风行=to become popular

    16. pogrom 大屠杀,集体迫害

    17. commissioner 委员,调查团团员

    18. quota 定量,配额,限额

    19. snag (尖利突出物,抽丝)潜在的困难

    20. heterogeneous 由不同种类组成的

    21. antagonistic 有效对抗性的,对抗性的

    22. clan 氏族

    23. tribe 部落

    24. pragmatic 务实的,讲究实效的

    25. municipality 城市,镇,区属政府,自治区

    26. Rom 罗姆,即吉普塞人

    难句译注

    1. Central Europe 中欧,如本文提及捷克,匈牙利,罗马尼亚等。

    2. European Union 欧盟。

    3. the EUs institutions 欧洲机构,如:European Commission 欧盟委员会,European Council 欧盟理事会,European Parliament 欧洲会议,the Court of Justic 欧洲法院。4m=more than 4 million 四百多万。

    4. Unlike Jews, Gypsies have had no known ancestral land to hark back to.

    [结构简析] hark back to =to mention again or remember an earlier subject, event, etc. 吉普塞不知其祖先来自何方,而犹太人在《圣经》中已阐明了他们的历史。

    [参考译文] 吉普塞人和犹太人不同,他们没有可以回想起来的已知的祖居地。

    5. …the notion of Romanestan as a landless nation founded on Gypsy culture has gained ground.

    [结构简析] gain ground (on) 接近。

    [参考译文] 作为建立在吉普塞文化基础上的无疆地民族应该有一个说吉普塞语的地方。这种想法越来越为人接受。

    6. the International Romany Union 国际吉普塞人联盟。

    7. Vaclav Harel (1936--) 剧作家和人权运动成员,1990——1992为捷克斯洛伐克的总统,1993年后为捷克总统。

    8. a Slovak-born lawyer 斯洛伐克出生的律师,1992年捷克斯洛伐克

    9. Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe 简称OSCE,偶中安全合作条约组织,成立于1972。

    10. nation 一词有民族和国家的含义。这里主要指:民族。因为作为国家应有疆土,但吉普塞人有要求成立国家的想法,欧盟是国家加入地方,不是民族加入。

    11. electoral block 选举集团

    12. The might, it is feared, open a Pandora’s box already containing Basques, Corsicans and other awkward peoples.

    [结构简析] Pandora’s box 潘多拉盒子——喻种种麻烦事。潘多拉是主神宙斯命火神用黏土制成的第一个女性。宙斯命潘多拉带着一个盒子下凡。潘多拉私自打开盒子,于是里面的疾病,罪恶等各种祸害全部出来,散布于世。这里潘多拉盒子喻里面已有的各种麻烦的民族,吉普塞加入,更多了一份麻烦。

    [参考译文] 人们担心,若让吉普塞人作为一个民族代表,就会打开了一个潘多拉盒子,里面已经装有要独立的西班牙的巴斯克人,意大利的科西嘉人和其他难以对付的民族。

    写作手法与文章大意

    文章以对比手法环绕吉普塞是不是一个民族/国家,可不可以取得合法地位这一中心而写。从人口上说,它的数量超过加入欧盟许多国家,应在欧盟中一席之底。但人口分散在各国,他是对抗的部落,还没有共同的语言和信仰。不像犹太人,它们没有回归的祖居地。它们成立了国际联盟,也选出了领导,在布鲁塞尔开设了办事处,想成立国会,但不知如何落实操作,只是极力游说欧盟和联合国等组织,以获得一个合法地位和发言权。这是欧盟日程表上一个问题,但欧盟等机构又担心,万一他们取得正式地位,那些国家中正闹分离和独立的民族也会提出同样的要求,就象潘多拉盒子那样,不能打开。

    答案祥解

    1. B. 他们是一个民族/国家吗?整篇文章环境这一点而写,文章一开始就提出中欧入欧盟的国家会给大陆吉普塞人一个机会,承认他们是一个民族——国家,虽然没有界定的领土(作为国家,应有领土)。吉普塞人的领袖人物也指出其人数超过欧盟中许多现在有的和将来要入盟的国家。他们至少要在欧盟中有一席之地。第二段提出,吉普塞和犹太人不同,他们没有可回归的祖居地。他们的语言属印欧语系。英国人认为他们来自埃及及移民。最可能的是七世纪时一些流浪的手工业工人和艺人从印度向西方流移。第三段涉及一种思想——以吉普塞文化为基础的无疆土的吉普塞民族应有个说话的地方—越来越为人接受。国际吉普塞人联盟声称代表30多个国家的吉普塞人,做了几件事:展开自我联合,提出语言标准和书面形式,在联合国进行游说活动时挥动吉普塞国旗,在布鲁塞尔设立办事处,六月在捷克首都布拉格召开会议。第四段集中讲到会上选出了联盟主席。一群选出吉普塞的政治家——国会议员,市长,地方政务委员再次在布拉格开会,会议由欧洲安全合作条约组织召集,来讨论如何动员更多的吉普塞人参政。第五段涉及联盟雄心勃勃的宣布要建立国会,但如何实际操作还未落实。后面主要是外界对吉普塞的态度。第六段描述欧盟委员会在吉普塞作为最大的大陆少数民族,历史上遭到残酷的迫害,应赢得特别承认。19世纪他们横遭奴役,希特勒企图把它们和犹太人一起消灭。第八段讲了欧洲会议中有人提出吉普塞在欧洲机构中应有一席之地,还提议一个常务委员负责吉普塞事务?;褂行卸锝ń⒁凰杖笱?。后面两段讲的是困难,第九段点出。最后一段指出,现在说他们有人有钱可以组成(国家)为时还早,可是吉普塞是欧盟中日程表上的一个问题,他们日益接近解决。从内部,外部情况分析都说明吉普塞是一个组成国家的民族。全文都是环绕它是不是,该不该承认为民族/国家而写,所以B项他们是不是民族是最佳标题。

    A. 吉普塞要想组成一个国家(民族)。这只是文章涉及到的部分内容,中欧国家想加入欧盟一事可能产生的结果。 C. 欧盟害怕它们成长。 D. 他们是一个部落。

    2. A. 最可能是在7世纪从印度流浪到西方。见第1题第二注释。

    B. 他们分散在世界各地。 C. 可能他们源于中欧。 D. 他们可能来自国际吉普塞人联盟。

    3. D. 它们在这些国际组织,如欧盟,联合国中进行活动游说要取得一席之地。见第1题第一段,三段注释。

    A. 它们游说活动欧盟和联合国接受他们的要求。太抽象。 B. 它们活动游说在国际机构取得职位。 C. 他们游说作为民族的权利。

    4. C. 它害怕巴斯克人,科西嘉人和其它要求分裂的民族会提出同样的要求。见难句译注11。

    A. 它可能会打开潘多拉盒子。此盒子在文章中只是比喻。 B. 鼓励可能会导致某些意想不到的结果。 D. 吉普塞的要求会加深欧盟分歧。 B,D两项不够明确。

    5. A. 吉普塞人属于不同的,而且常常是对抗的民族的部落,还没有共同的语言和宗教信仰。

    B. 他们领袖很腐败。 C. 他们潜在的团结来自被人看作是低于人类(次等人)。 D. 他们有点太讲究实效, B,C, D 三项不是主要问题。主要问题是A. 项。

    Passage Three (Method of Scientific Inquiry)

    Why the inductive and mathematical sciences, after their first rapid development at the culmination of Greek civilization, advanced so slowly for two thousand years—and why in the following two hundred years a knowledge of natural and mathematical science has accumulated, which so vastly exceeds all that was previously known that these sciences may be justly regarded as the products of our own times—are questions which have interested the modern philosopher not less than the objects with which these sciences are more immediately conversant. Was it the employment of a new method of research, or in the exercise of greater virtue in the use of the old methods, that this singular modern phenomenon had its origin? Was the long period one of arrested development, and is the modern era one of normal growth? Or should we ascribe the characteristics of both periods to so-called historical accidents—to the influence of conjunctions in circumstances of which no explanation is possible, save in the omnipotence and wisdom of a guiding Providence?

    The explanation which has become commonplace, that the ancients employed deduction chiefly in their scientific inquiries, while the moderns employ induction, proves to be too narrow, and fails upon close examination to point with sufficient distinctness the contrast that is evident between ancient and modern scientific doctrines and inquiries. For all knowledge is founded on observation, and proceeds from this by analysis, by synthesis and analysis, by induction and deduction, and if possible by verification, or by new appeals to observation under the guidance of deduction—by steps which are indeed correlative parts of one method; and the ancient sciences afford examples of every one of these methods, or parts of one method, which have been generalized from the examples of science.

    A failure to employ or to employ adequately any one of these partial methods, an imperfection in the arts and resources of observation and experiment, carelessness in observation, neglect of relevant facts, by appeal to experiment and observation—these are the faults which cause all failures to ascertain truth, whether among the ancients or the moderns; but this statement does not explain why the modern is possessed of a greater virtue, and by what means he attained his superiority. Much less does it explain the sudden growth of science in recent times.

    The attempt to discover the explanation of this phenomenon in the antithesis of “facts” and “theories” or “facts” and “ideas”—in the neglect among the ancients of the former, and their too exclusive attention to the latter—proves also to be too narrow, as well as open to the charge of vagueness. For in the first place, the antithesis is not complete. Facts and theories are not coordinate species. Theories, if true, are facts—a particular class of facts indeed, generally complex, and if a logical connection subsists between their constituents, have all the positive attributes of theories.

    Nevertheless, this distinction, however inadequate it may be to explain the source of true method in science, is well founded, and connotes an important character in true method. A fact is a proposition of simple. A theory, on the other hand, if true has all the characteristics of a fact, except that its verification is possible only by indirect, remote, and difficult means. To convert theories into facts is to add simple verification, and the theory thus acquires the full characteristics of a fact.

    1. The title that best expresses the ideas of this passage is

    [A]. Philosophy of mathematics. [B]. The Recent Growth in Science.

    [C]. The Verification of Facts. [C]. Methods of Scientific Inquiry.

    2. According to the author, one possible reason for the growth of science during the days of the ancient Greeks and in modern times is

    [A]. the similarity between the two periods.

    [B]. that it was an act of God.

    [C]. that both tried to develop the inductive method.

    [D]. due to the decline of the deductive method.

    3. The difference between “fact” and “theory”

    [A]. is that the latter needs confirmation.

    [B]. rests on the simplicity of the former.

    [C]. is the difference between the modern scientists and the ancient Greeks.

    [D]. helps us to understand the deductive method.

    4. According to the author, mathematics is

    [A]. an inductive science. [B]. in need of simple verification.

    [C]. a deductive science. [D]. based on fact and theory.

    5. The statement “Theories are facts” may be called.

    [A]. a metaphor. [B]. a paradox.

    [C]. an appraisal of the inductive and deductive methods.

    [D]. a pun.

    Vocabulary

    1. inductive 归纳法

    induction n.归纳法

    2. deductive 演绎法

    deduction n。演绎法

    3. culmination 到达顶/极点

    4. conversant (with) 熟悉的,精通的

    5. exercise 运用,实行,执行仪式

    singular 卓越的,非凡的,独一无二的

    6. conjunction 结合,同时发生

    7. omnipotence 全能,无限权/威力

    8. Providence (大写)指上帝,天道,天令

    9. commonplace 平凡的,陈腐的

    10. inquiry 调查,探究(真理,知识等)

    11. doctrine 教义,学说,讲义

    12. correlative 相互关联的

    13. antithesis 对立面,对偶(修辞学中),对句

    14. coordinate 同等的,并列的

    15. subsist 生存,维持生活

    16. attribute 特征,属性

    17. connote 意味着,含蓄(指词内涵)

    难句译注

    1. Why the inductive and mathematical sciences, after their first rapid development at the culmination of Greek civilization, advanced so slowly for two thousand years are questions which have interested the modern philosopher not less than the objects with which these sciences are more immediately conversant.

    [结构简析] 破折号后面的内容(见难句译注2)先撇开。这样便于理解,整个句子是主谓表结构,前面一个问题句作主语,question后跟一个定语从句,和not less than连接的表语。

    [参考译文] 为什么归纳发和数学科学,在希腊文明达到顶点时首先快速发展后,两千年内进展缓慢,现在哲学家对这个问题的兴趣不亚于对这些科学很熟悉研究的对象。

    2. …—and why in the following two hundred years a knowledge of natural and mathematical science has accumulated, which so vastly exceeds all that was previously known that these sciences may be justly regarded as the products of our own times—…

    [参考译文] 问什么在后来的二百年中自然科学数理科学积累起来,它们广泛的超越了过去已知的一切,所以就把这些科学视为我们时代的产品。

    3. arrested development 停滞发展(被制止了的发展)。

    4. Or should we ascribe the characteristics of both periods to so-called historical accidents—to the influence of conjunctions in circumstances of which no explanation is possible, save in the omnipotence and wisdom of a guiding Providence?

    [参考译文] 或者我们是否应当把两个阶段的特点归因于所谓的历史的偶然性(意外事件)——归因于客观环境中相似(结合)的影响。这一点除非以指导一切的上帝的智慧和无限权利来解释,否则难以解说清楚。

    写作方法与文章大意

    这是篇议论文,论及科学探索的方法,总体是因果写法,具体分析又是对比写法。作者采用问答方式探究为什么希腊文明顶峰之后两千年,科技发展缓慢,而最近两百年又迅速发展超越前人,其原因在哪里?是采用新,旧方法所致,历史之偶然性,还是上天安排。

    然后以现代用归纳法,古代用演绎法太狭隘说明科学总是在观察,实验,检验,证实中前进。但事实难以解释慢和快的现象。最后以“对立”——事实和理论对立古代重视事实来解释。然这两者是对立的统一。真正的理论就是事实。事实,构成之间具逻辑联系,就具有理论的一切正面特性。这种区分虽不足以解释科学研究中真正方法,但奠定了良好的基础,含有真正方法中的重要特性。

    答案祥解

    1. D. 科学研究/探索的方法。文章一开始就提出问题,为什么从希腊文化顶峰时期后两千年来归纳法和数学科学发展如此缓慢,而后的两百年又超越了前人,是应用新,旧方法关系还是其它(见难句译注1,2)。第二段讲埃及古代在科学探索中运用了演绎推理法,而现在应用了归纳法。这种解释太狭隘,经仔细审核,难以很清晰地点明古代和现代科学教义和探究上明显的差别。因为一切知识都基于观察,通过分析,综合,或综合分析,归纳演绎推理,有可能的话,经过校正或经由演绎指导下再观察而向前推进。第三段进一步阐明不用这些方法观察,实验;忽略相关事实,推理不慎;不能答出理论的结论,再用实验或观察来检验等或用得不全,不论在古代还是现代都会失败。但这不能说明为什么现代科学具有较高的功效,通过什么方式方法,超越了前人,更不用说说明最近科学突飞猛进的原因。第四,五段涉及事实和理论的关系。

    A. 数学的哲学,文内没有提。 B. 近来科学的发展。 C. 事实的验证,只是最后两段提及验证方法之作用。

    2. B. 是上天的安排,这是作家在用方法论等失败后得出的结论。见难句译注4,第一段最后一句话。

    A. 两个阶段的相似性。 . 两者都试图应用归纳法。 D. 由于演绎法的衰落。

    3. A. 后者需要证实。答案在第四,五段,死段试图在事实的对立面和理论,或事实和思想中发现上述现象的解释看起来有饿太狭隘,也会因模糊不清遭批评。因为,对立面不全面,事实和理论不是同类的事物。理论,如果是真正的理论,就是事实——一种特殊类别的事实,一般复杂,但仍是事实。而事实,从词的狭义来说,如果很复杂,如果各成分中存在着逻辑的联系,就具有理论的一切主要特征。第五段第二句,事实是一个提议,通过运用知识的源泉和经验而证实的提议直接而又简单。而理论,若是真理论,就有事实的一切特性(除非其证实只能通过非直接的,遥远的和困难的方式方法),把理论转成事实必须用简单的核实,理论因此具有事实的一切特性。

    B. 前者简单。 C. 是现代科学家和古希腊的差异。 D. 帮助我们了解演绎法,三项都不对。

    4. C. 是推理演绎科学,这个问题常识就能回答。

    A. 归纳法科学。 B. 需要简单证实。 D. 基于事实和理论。

    5. B. 是一个悖论,见第四,五段注释。

    A. 比喻。 C. 对归纳法和演绎法的赞扬。 D. 双关语。

    Passage Four (It Is Bush)

    On the 36th day after they had voted, Americans finally learned Wednesday who would be their next president: Governor George W. Bush of Texas.

    Vice President Al Gore, his last realistic avenue for legal challenge closed by a U. S. Supreme Court decision late Tuesday, planned to end the contest formally in a televised evening speech of perhaps 10 minutes, advisers said.

    They said that Senator Joseph Lieberman, his vice presidential running mate, would first make brief comments. The men would speak from a ceremonial chamber of the Old Executive office Building, to the west of the White House.

    The dozens of political workers and lawyers who had helped lead Mr. Gore’s unprecedented fight to claw a come-from-behind electoral victory in the pivotal state of Florida were thanked Wednesday and asked to stand down.

    “The vice president has directed the recount committee to suspend activities,” William Daley, the Gore campaign chairman, said in a written statement.

    Mr. Gore authorized that statement after meeting with his wife, Tipper, and with top advisers including Mr. Daley.

    He was expected to telephone Mr. Bush during the day. The Bush campaign kept a low profile and moved gingerly, as if to leave space for Mr. Gore to contemplate his next steps.

    Yet, at the end of a trying and tumultuous process that had focused world attention on sleepless vote counters across Florida, and on courtrooms form Miami to Tallahassee to Atlanta to Washington the Texas governor was set to become the 43d U. S. president.

    The news of Mr. Gore’s plans followed the longest and most rancorous dispute over a U. S. presidential election in more than a century, one certain to leave scars in a badly divided country.

    It was a bitter ending for Mr. Gore, who had outpolled Mr. Bush nationwide by some 300000 votes, but, without Florida, fell short in the Electoral College by 271votes to 267—the narrowest Electoral College victory since the turbulent election of 1876.

    Mr. Gore was said to be distressed by what he and many Democratic activists felt was a partisan decision from the nation’s highest court.

    The 5-to –4 decision of the Supreme Court held, in essence, that while a vote recount in Florida could be conducted in legal and constitutional fashion, as Mr. Gore had sought, this could not be done by the Dec. 12 deadline for states to select their presidential electors.

    James Baker 3rd, the former secretary of state who represented Mr. Bush in the Florida dispute, issued a short statement after the U. S. high court ruling, saying that the governor was “very pleased and gratified.”

    Mr. Bush was planning a nationwide speech aimed at trying to begin to heal the country’s deep, aching and varied divisions. He then was expected to meet with congressional leaders, including Democrats. Dick Cheney, Mr. Bush’s ruing mate, was meeting with congressmen Wednesday in Washington.

    When Mr. Bush, who is 54, is sworn into office on Jan.20, he will be only the second son of a president to follow his father to the White House, after John Adams and John Quincy Adams in the early 19th century.

    Mr. Gore, in his speech, was expected to thank his supporters, defend his hive-week battle as an effort to ensure, as a matter of principle, that every vote be counted, and call for the nation to join behind the new president. He was described by an aide as “resolved and resigned.”

    While some constitutional experts had said they believed states could present electors as late as Dec. 18, the U. S. high court made clear that it saw no such leeway.

    The U.S. high court sent back “for revision” to the Florida court its order allowing recounts but made clear that for all practical purposes the election was over.

    In its unsigned main opinion, the court declared, “The recount process, in its features here described, is inconsistent with the minimum procedures necessary to protect the fundamental right of each voter.”

    That decision, by a court fractured along philosophical lines, left one liberal justice charging that the high court’s proceedings bore a political taint.

    Justice John Paul Stevens wrote in an angry dissent:” Although we may never know with complete certainty the identity of the winner of this year’s presidential election, the identity of the loser is perfectly clear. It is the nation’s confidence in the judge as an impartial guardian of the law.”

    But at the end of five seemingly endless weeks, during which the physical, legal and constitutional machines of the U. S. election were pressed and sorely tested in ways unseen in more than a century, the system finally produced a result, and one most Americans appeared to be willing at lease provisionally to support.

    The Bush team welcomed the news with an outward show of restraint and aplomb. The governor’s hopes had risen and fallen so many times since Election night, and the legal warriors of each side suffered through so many dramatic reversals, that there was little energy left for celebration.

    1. The main idea of this passage is

    [A]. Bush’s victory in presidential election bore a political taint.

    [B]. The process of the American presidential election.

    [C]. The Supreme Court plays a very important part in the presidential election.

    [D]. Gore is distressed.

    2. What does the sentence “as if to leave space for Mr. Gore to contemplate his next step” mean

    [A]. Bush hopes Gore to join his administration.

    [B]. Bush hopes Gore to concede defeat and to support him.

    [C]. Bush hopes Gore to congraduate him.

    [D]. Bush hopes Gore go on fighting with him.

    3. Why couldn’t Mr. Gore win the presidential election after he outpolled Mr. Bush in the popular vote? Because

    [A]. the American president is decided by the supreme court’s decision.

    [B]. people can’t directly elect their president.

    [C]. the American president is elected by a slate of presidential electors.

    [D]. the people of each state support Mr. Bush.

    4. What was the result of the 5—4 decision of the supreme court?

    [A]. It was in fact for the vote recount.

    [B]. It had nothing to do with the presidential election.

    [C]. It decided the fate of the winner.

    [D]. It was in essence against the vote recount.

    5. What did the “turbulent election of 1876” imply?

    [A]. The process of presidential election of 2000 was the same as that.

    [B]. There were great similarities between the two presidential elections (2000 and 1876).

    [C]. It was compared to presidential election of 2000.

    [D]. It was given an example.

    Vocabulary

    1. avenue 通向成功/获取成功的途径/手段

    2. running mate 竞选伙伴,如作为总统的竞选伙伴,获胜后为副总统

    3. pivotal 重要的,枢纽的

    4. gingerly=carefully 小心翼翼地

    5. tumultuous 吵闹的,骚动的,激动的

    6. rancorous 充满仇恨的

    7. elector 总统选举团成员

    8. elector college 美国选举总统的选举团

    9. leeway 风压差,余地

    10. for all practical purpose 事实上,实际

    11. fracture 断裂,折断

    12. taint 污点,败坏,感染

    13. dissent 不同意,异议

    14. provisionally 暂时的,临时的

    15. aplomb 镇静,沉着

    16. restraint 抑制,克制,谨慎

    难句译注

    1. stand down 退出竞争/竞选,辞职,推出法庭。这里指戈尔感谢这些竞争支持者后,就退出竞选。此短语的对立面是stand for 竞选。 Ex: to stand for parliament 竞选国会议员。

    2. The Bush campaign kept a low profile and moved gingerly, as if to leave space for Mr. Gore to contemplate his next steps.

    [结构简析] profile 外形,轮廓,外观。Low profile 低姿态,不出头露面,不惹人注意。High profile 鲜明的姿态。

    3. recount committee 重新计算选票委员会。

    4. …one certain to leave scars is a badly divided country.

    [结构简析] election 的同位语one (election) which was certain。 Leave scar 留下伤疤。

    [参考译文] 人们可以肯定计算问题在这两派分裂的国家上留下伤疤。

    5. It was a bitter ending for Mr. Gore, who had outpolled Mr. Bush nationwide by some 300000 votes, but, without Florida, fell short in the Electoral College by 271votes to 267—the narrowest Electoral College victory since the turbulent election of 1876.

    [结构简析] outpoll 得到的选票超过某人。Fall short (of) 缺少,不足,达不到。Electoral college 选举团票,指每一个州人民选出一群人组成选举团,由它们直接选举总统。

    6. The election of 1876

    这是指1876年11月7日美国内战时少将,共和党人,俄亥俄州州长卢瑟?!ずR蛩?,在总统选举结束后,认为自己输给民主党人,纽约州长萨缪尔·莱尔登而安息??稍诘诙?,因为涉嫌欺骗行为,有争议之州,如佛罗里达,路易斯安娜,南卡罗莱纳重新计票及诉讼。那一年选举结果争议持续了四个月的时间。国会因争议,不得不推迟总统就职时间。到第二年,1877年3月4日,总统就职最后期限的前两天,国会建立了一个两党联合选举委员会:包括八名共和党人和七名民主党人。最后该会把所有争议的选举人票都给了海因斯。结果以185票对莱尔登184张选举团票。海因斯多一票当选为美国第19任总统。2000年的美国总统选举与1876年的很相似。所以句内提及。

    7. James Baker 3rd 贝克曾任前共和党总统里根(Ronald Reagen)政府的内阁成员和白宫办公所主任。在小布什父亲的父亲George Bush任总统时又担任过国务卿(1989——1993)。这次他是小布什为重新计票问题在法庭展开斗争的律师代表,而民主党的律师代表似乎克林顿政府中担任过国务卿的克里斯托弗Warren Christopher (1993--1997)。

    8. Dick Cheney 切尼是小布什父亲执政时的老臣。他这次出山要以辅弼大臣的资格和经验辅佐朝政。所以报道中提到he will act in the Bush administration as a president in a corporation while George W. Bush as the Chairman of the board of directors.

    9. John Adams (1735—1848), 约翰·亚当斯,美国第二任总统(1979——1801),联邦党人,Federalist, 是起草独立宣言的关键人物。

    10. John Quincy Adams (1767—1848) 美国第六任总统,是上述亚当斯大儿子。

    11. resolved and resigned 这里指他的追随者认为戈尔坚定而又顺从(天命),因为戈尔的演说,一方面感谢他们的支持,五星期来保证每张票都应计算的努力是捍卫了原则问题,另一方面也是号召全国支持新总统。

    12. It saw no such leeway. 美国高等法院认为这是没有成功的多花时间,金钱的事。和后面句内for all practical purpose the election was over 事实上选举已结束(已成定居),传达了高等法院认为重新计票毫无作用之义。

    13. That decision, by a court fractured along philosophical lines, left one liberal justice charging that the high court’s proceedings bore a political taint.

    [参考译文] 法院这一裁决割裂了哲学思想,使一位自由派法官(司法官)指高等法院程序沾上了政治污点。

    14. But at the end of five seemingly endless weeks, during which the physical, legal and constitutional machines of the U. S. election were pressed and sorely tested in ways unseen in more than a century, the system finally produced a result, and one most Americans appeared to be willing at lease provisionally to support.

    [参考译文] 经过5个似乎无休止的星期之后,这个制度总算产生了一个结果,一个大多数美国人,至少目前能暂时支持的总统。在这五星期内,有形的,法律的,政体的机器都经受了压力(都很紧张),也经受了一百多年来没有见过的这方面的沉重考验。

    写作方法和文章大意

    这是一篇报导,其特点先画龙点睛指出中心事实,Bush当选,戈尔退出,然后以对比手法写出胜者和败方的处理方法,前者低调,谨慎,似乎宽容,后者似乎退让,认命,再次选举的经过,特别是最高法院的裁决,决定选举的命运点出胜败之因(因果写法)。小布什的险胜有点类似1876的选举(实例佐证)。

    答案祥解

    1. A. 布什在总统选举中获胜沾上了政治污点。整篇文章环绕这一点而写。文章一开始就写戈尔在高等法院裁决下退出竞选,再写布什得胜后的低调行动表示对戈尔的期望。仁厚点出271——276选举团票布什的险胜是和全国最高法院的欺诈性裁决有关,这令戈尔痛心疾首,令布什等感恩戴德。最后集中写了高等法院司法程序沾上了政治污点,以及当选之布什的后果——大多数美国人似乎暂时会支持。这一切说明布什胜胜不武,而戈尔却是虽败尤胜。

    B. 美国总统选举过程,文章过程的焦点在布什获胜之因,不单单是过程,故B. 项不对。

    C. 高等法院在总统选举中起着重要的作用。其作用是欺诈性裁决,偏袒布什获胜,是政治污点,反映了布什的手段。 D. 戈尔很难受,这是事实,但不是中心思想。

    2. B. 布什希望戈尔(能退一步)承认失败,并支持他,而戈尔确实是也这样做了。所以他的助手称戈尔为“resolved and resigned.” 坚决而又顺从天命的人。至少在他的演讲中号召人们追随新总统。

    A. 布什希望戈尔参与他的政府。 C. 布什希望戈尔祝贺他。 D. 布什希望戈尔继续和他斗下去。

    3. C. 美国的总统由选举团提名选举产生。见难句译注5和6。

    A. 美国总统由高等法院裁决。 B. 人民不能直接选举总统。这只是第一步的原因,主要原因在C. D. 各州人民支持布什。

    4. D. 其结果实质上就是反对重新计票。这在第十二段阐述得很清楚:高等法院5比4之裁决实质上就是重新计票在12月12日州选举总统选举团的最后一天之前是不能进行的,而戈尔曾认为弗罗里达州可以法律和宪法的形式重新计票。总统选举团一产生。总统由选举团提名选举产生,那么重新计票与否对总统选举实际上是毫无作用,所以说5比4裁决12月12日之前……实质上就是反对重新计票。

    A. 其结果实际上是支持重新计票。不对。 B. 其结果和总统选举毫无关系,不对,关系很大,见D项注释。 C. 其结果决定胜者的命运。

    5. B. 它隐射2000年的总统选举和1876年的总统选举两者之间有着很大的相似之处。见难句译注6,海因斯认为输了,正准备放弃,谁知涉嫌欺骗行为,对有争议的州进行重新计票。结果是海因斯以一票之差险胜。重新计票以及险胜都和2000年总统选举相似,其它方面,如以为输而没有输,重新计票州多而且起到作用等……,都和2000年选举不同,所以只能选B项,A项完全一样是错误的。

    A. 两者选举总统过程一个样。 C. 把1876年总统选举比作2000年的总统选举。 D. 作为例子给出。 这里没有说明。

    Passage Five (Women’s Positions in the 17th Century)

    Social circumstances in Early Modern England mostly served to repress women’s voices. Patriarchal culture and institutions constructed them as chaste, silent, obedient, and subordinate. At the beginning of the 17th century, the ideology of patriarchy, political absolutism, and gender hierarchy were reaffirmed powerfully by King James in The Trew Law of Free Monarchie and the Basilikon Doron; by that ideology the absolute power of God the supreme patriarch was seen to be imaged in the absolute monarch of the state and in the husband and father of a family. Accordingly, a woman’s subjection, first to her father and then to her husband, imaged the subjection of English people to their monarch, and of all Christians to God. Also, the period saw an outpouring of repressive or overtly misogynist sermons, tracts, and plays, detailing women’s physical and mental defects, spiritual evils, rebelliousness, shrewish ness, and natural inferiority to men.

    Yet some social and cultural conditions served to empower women. During the Elizabethan era (1558—1603) the culture was dominated by a powerful Queen, who provided an impressive female example though she left scant cultural space for other women. Elizabethan women writers began to produce original texts but were occupied chiefly with translation. In the 17th century, however, various circumstances enabled women to write original texts in some numbers. For one thing, some counterweight to patriarchy was provided by female communities—mothers and daughters, extended kinship networks, close female friends, the separate court of Queen Anne (King James’ consort) and her often oppositional masques and political activities. For another, most of these women had a reasonably good education (modern languages, history, literature, religion, music, occasionally Latin) and some apparently found in romances and histories more expansive terms for imagining women’s lives. Also, representation of vigorous and rebellious female characters in literature and especially on the stage no doubt helped to undermine any monolithic social construct of women’s mature and role.

    Most important, perhaps, was the radical potential inherent in the Protestant insistence on every Christian’s immediate relationship with God and primary responsibility to follow his or her individual conscience. There is plenty of support in St Paul’s epistles and elsewhere in the Bible for patriarchy and a wife’s subjection to her husband, but some texts (notably Galatians 3:28) inscribe a very different politics, promoting women’s spiritual equality: “There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female: for ye are all one in Jesus Christ.” Such texts encouraged some women to claim the support of God the supreme patriarch against the various earthly patriarchs who claimed to stand toward them in his stead.

    There is also the gap or slippage between ideology and common experience. English women throughout the 17th century exercised a good deal of accrual power: as managers of estates in their husbands’ absences at court or on military and diplomatic missions; as members of guilds; as wives and mothers who apex during the English Civil War and Interregnum (1640-60) as the execution of the King and the attendant disruption of social hierarchies led many women to seize new roles—as preachers, as prophetesses, as deputies for exiled royalist husbands, as writers of religious and political tracts.

    1. What is the best title for this passage?

    [A]. Women’s Position in the 17th Century.

    [B]. Women’s Subjection to Patriarchy.

    [C]. Social Circumstances in the 17th Century.

    [D]. Women’s objection in the 17th Century.

    2. What did the Queen Elizabeth do for the women in culture?

    [A]. She set an impressive female example to follow.

    [B]. She dominated the culture.

    [C]. She did little.

    [D]. She allowed women to translate something.

    3. Which of the following is Not mention as a reason to enable women to original texts?

    [A].Female communities provided some counterweight to patriarchy.

    [B]. Queen Anne’s political activities.

    [C]. Most women had a good education.

    [D]. Queen Elizabeth’s political activities.

    4. What did the religion so for the women?

    [A]. It did nothing.

    [B]. It too asked women to be obedient except some texts.

    [C]. It supported women.

    [D]. It appealed to the God.

    Vocabulary

    1. repress 压制,镇压,约束

    2. patriarchy 族长制,家长制

    3. chaste 贞洁的,高雅的

    4. hierarchy 等级制

    5. monarch 君主,最高统治

    6. image 象征,反映

    7. overtly 公开的,明显的

    8. outpour 倾泻

    9. sermon 布道,说教

    10. tract 政治宗教,小册子传单

    11. misogynist 反对妇女

    12. shrewish 泼妇似的,爱骂街的

    13. counterweight 抗衡

    14. consort 配偶

    15. masque 化装舞会

    16. monolithic 铁板一样的,磐石般的

    17. epistle 圣经·新约中的使徒书

    18. Galatians 新约圣经中加拉太书

    19. inscribe 写,题写,铭记

    难句译注

    1. Also, the period saw an outpouring of repressive or overtly misogynist sermons, tracts, and plays, detailing women’s physical and mental defects, spiritual evils, rebelliousness, shrewish ness, and natural inferiority to men.

    [结构简析] 这是一种句型,年代,时间+see, find 等动词+宾语。

    [参考译文] 这一时期出来许多约束或明显反对妇女的布道(教义),小册子和戏剧,详细地描述了妇女精神上和肉体上的缺陷,精神罪恶,叛逆,凶狠,天生低于男人的品性。

    2. Such texts encouraged some women to claim the support of God the supreme patriarch against the various earthly patriarchs who claimed to stand toward them in his stead.

    [结构简析] in one’s stead 代替某人。

    [参考译文] 这样的版本鼓励有些妇女去寻求最高家长,上帝的支持,以对抗各种各样凡间家长,他们声称替代上帝对付她们。

    写作方法与文章大意

    文章论述了17世纪英国妇女的地位,采用对比写作手法。一方面(第一段)英皇詹姆士重新以法律形式确定:家长制的思想体系,政治上集权主义,性别等级制。而思想意识是上帝的绝对权威;最高等级制体现在绝对君主政权上,体现在家庭的父亲和丈夫身上。所以妇女先对父亲,后对丈夫的服从体现了英国臣民对君权,全体基督徒对上帝的服从。那时代造就的妇女都是贞洁,沉默,服从,低下。

    另方面,某些社会和文化因素赋予妇女以力量,首先是女皇伊丽莎白统治的时期,她本身就是一个强有力的榜样。其次一些妇女亲情关系,以及安娜女皇的分庭抗礼统治活动和舞会。再则是大多数活动妇女都受过良好教育。最重要的是有些圣经文本鼓吹妇女精神平等。

    最后一段论述了英国妇女实际上有的已经掌握实权,如丈夫公务,他们管理庄园田产。

    答案祥解

    1. A. 17世纪英国妇女地位。见上面文章大意。

    B. 妇女服从于家族制。 D. 17世纪妇女的反抗,都是A.内容中的一部分,不能作为最佳标题。 C. 17世纪英国社会形式,只能作为背景出现。

    2. C. 她没有做什么。英女皇伊丽莎白在位时期间在文化上并没有妇女做过什么。这在第二段讲得很清楚?!耙晾錾淄持问逼冢?558——1603),文化领域为强有里女皇所控制,她本人确实树立了令人难忘的妇女形象,可是她并没有为其它妇女能够创作一些东西?!奔懊媪谐鲋蚝拖乱坏捞獾腁. B. C.

    3. D. 伊丽莎白女皇的政治活动。这文内没有提及。

    A. 妇女亲情网对家长制进行抗衡。 B. 安娜女皇的政治活动。 C. 大多数妇女都受过良好教育。这三项在第二段中都提到?!笆紫?,妇女亲情关系,如母亲,女儿,他们的亲戚网,好友;安娜女皇单独的宫殿,她那对立的化装舞会和政治活动都和族长制予以抗衡?!?/p>

    4. B. 除了某些文本外,它也要求妇女服从。第一段,见上述内容。第三段集中论述这一点?!耙残?,最重要的是基督教固有潜在激进性。它坚持主张每个基督徒和上帝的直接关系,坚持人首先责任是服从她或他的良知。在圣·保罗使徒书以及在别的圣经中有许多对家长制,妻子对丈夫的服从支持??墒怯行┪谋撅钥套乓恢滞耆煌恼喂鄣?,鼓吹妇女精神平等:”人没有犹太和希腊之分,没有束缚或自由之分,没有男女之分,因为在耶酥基督面前,你们都是一样?!?/p>

    A. 它什么也没有做。不对。 C. 它支持妇女。也不对,只有某些版本支持。 D. 它求助于上帝。它借上帝之名压制妇女。第一段:“因此,妇女首先服从父亲,然后服从丈夫,体现了(象征)英国人民服从他们的君主,所有基督徒服从上帝?!?/p>

    Passage Six (The Present Is the Most Important)

    Shams and delusions are esteemed for soundest truths, while reality is fabulous. If men would steadily observe realities only, and not allow themselves to be deluded, life, to compare it with such things as we know, would be like a fairy tale and the Arabian Nights’ Entertainments. If we respected only what is inevitable and has a right to be , music and poetry would resound along the streets. When we are unhurried and wise, we perceive that only great and worthy things have any permanent and absolute existence, --that petty fears and petty pleasure are but the shadow of reality. This is always exhilarating and sublime. By closing the eyes and slumbering, by consenting to be deceived by shows, men establish and confirm their daily life of routine and habit everywhere, which still is built on purely illusory foundation. Children, who play life, discern its true law and relations more clearly than men, who fail to live worthily, but who think that they are wiser by experience, that is, by failure. I have read in a Hindoo book, that “there was a king’s son, who, being expelled in infancy from his native city, was brought up by a forester, and, growing up to maturity in that state, imagined himself to belong to the barbarous race with which be lived. One of his father’s ministers having discovered him, revealed to him what he was, and the misconception of his character was removed, and he knew himself to be a prince. So soul, from the circumstances in which it is placed, mistakes its own character, until the truth is revealed to it by some holy teacher, and then it knows itself to be Brahme.” We think that that is which appears to be. If a man should give us an account of the realities he beheld, we should not recognize the place in his deion. Look at a meeting-house, or a court-house, or a jail, or a shop. Or a dwelling-house, and say what that thing really is before a true gaze, and they would all go to pieces in your account of them. Men esteem truth remote, in the outskirts of the system, behind the farthest star, before Adam and after the last man. In eternity there is indeed something true and sublime. But all these times and places and occasions are now and here. God himself culminates in the present moment, and will never be more divine in the lapse of all ages. And we are enabled to apprehend at all what is sublime and noble only by the perpetual instilling and drenching of the reality that surrounds us. The universe constantly and obediently answers to our conceptions; whether we travel fast or slow, the track is laid for us. Let us spend our lives in conceiving then. The poet or the artist never yet had as fair and noble a design but some of his posterity at least could accomplish it.

    1. The writer’s attitude toward the arts is one of

    [A]. admiration. [B]. indifference. [C]. suspicion. [D]. repulsion

    2. The author believes that a child.

    [A]. should practice what the Hindoos preach.

    [B]. frequently faces vital problems better than grownups do.

    [C]. hardly ever knows his true origin.

    [D]. is incapable of appreciating the arts.

    3. The author is primarily concerned with urging the reader to

    [A]. look to the future for enlightenment. [B]. appraise the present for its true value.

    [C]. honor the wisdom of the past ages. [D]. spend more time in leisure activities.

    4. The passage is primarily concerned with problem of

    [A]. history and economics. [B]. society and population.

    [C]. biology and physics. [D]. theology and philosophy.

    Vocabulary

    1. sham 虚伪

    2. delusion 欺骗

    3. fabulous 荒诞无稽的,不存在的

    4. exhilarating 令人高兴的

    5. sublime 崇高的

    6. slumber 睡眠

    7. Hindoo 印度

    8. Brahma 婆罗门(贵族)

    9. come, fall, go to pieces 崩溃,垮台

    10. culminate 达到顶点

    11. lapse 时间的推移/消逝

    12. apprehend 领悟,理解

    13. instill (慢慢地)滴注,灌输

    14. drench 浸泡,使湿透

    15. posterity 子孙后代

    16. look to 指望,注意

    难句译注

    1. If men would steadily observe realities only, and not allow themselves to be deluded, life, to compare it with such things as we know, would be like a fairy tale and the Arabian Nights’ Entertainments.

    [结构简析] 虚拟条件句,主句中to compare it with… know是插入语,也有假设之意。

    [参考译文] 如果人们坚持只观察现实,不让自己被蒙蔽,那么生活,把它和我们知道的事情相比较,就象神话,象一千零一夜中描述的一切。

    2. When we are unhurried and wise, we perceive that only great and worthy things have any permanent and absolute existence, --that petty fears and petty pleasure are but the shadow of reality.

    [结构简析] 主句中两个that. 第一个是perceive 的宾语从句。破折号的第二个 that从句是说明,对比前一个that 句。

    [参考译文] 在我们冷静和明智时,我们会感到只有伟大的和有价值的东西才能永恒绝对地存在,而那些微不足道的恐惧和欢乐仅仅是现实的阴影而已。

    3. By closing the eyes and slumbering, by consenting to be deceived by shows, men establish and confirm their daily life of routine and habit everywhere, which still is built on purely illusory foundation.

    [参考译文] 闭上眼睛,昏昏欲睡,允许自己被表面现象所蒙蔽,人们通过这些手段来建立和确定他们的生活日程和各种习惯。这仍然是建立在幻(觉)想基础上的东西。

    4. So soul, from the circumstances in which it is placed, mistakes its own character, until the truth is revealed to it by some holy teacher, and then it knows itself to be Brahme.”

    [结构简析] from the circumstances in which … ,介词短语+定从,实际上都是修饰mistake

    [参考译文] 从它所处的环境中出发,灵魂把自己的身份搞错了。直到某个神圣的先生揭示的事实,那时它才知道自己是个贵族。

    5. We think that that is which appears to be.

    [结构简析] 第一个that 是引导think的宾语从句的连接词,第二个that 是代词,作宾从中的主语,指上述“灵魂”整个句子。

    [参考译文] 我们想那就是看起来那个样子(情况似乎就是那样)。

    写作方法与文章大意

    这是一篇从哲学角度探讨人应重视现实的论说文。采用以对比,具体实例说明的写作手法。先用虚伪和欺骗被尊为至高无上的真理一事,跟正视现实,尊重必然的东西对比,引出后者是美好生活的来源。再以大人和孩子对比,孩子更能分辨生活的规律。最后从过去,未来和现在对比,人们对过去认为就是这么一回事,崇拜遥远的一切。作者提醒人们——此时此地的现实是最重要的。

    答案祥解

    1. A. 钦佩。本文第三句“如果我们只尊重必然的东西,尊重有权威为必然的东西,那么音乐和诗歌会重新在街上唱诵?!北疚淖詈笠痪洹八淙皇嘶蛞帐醮永疵挥腥绱嗣篮煤统绺叩纳柘?,但他们有些后代至少会达到这一步的?!被褂心丫湟胱?。这些都说明作者对艺术视为崇高和美好,不是被蒙蔽的东西。

    B. 漠不关心。 C. 怀疑的。 D. 排斥。多不对。

    2. B. 孩子们常常比成人更好地棉队各种问题。本文第七句“孩子们游戏生活(整天只知道玩儿),却比难以很好的生活的成人们更清楚的分辨出显示生活的真正规律和种种关系?!?/p>

    A. 孩子应当实践印度布道宣传的东西。 C. 几乎对其真实出身一无所知。这是讲王子的事情,不是一般孩子。 D. 难以欣赏艺术。并未提及。

    3. B. 珍视目前的真正价值。这在文章倒数第五句“永恒中,确实有真实和崇高的东西存在。但是所有这一切时间,地点,机遇都是在此时此地。上帝本身在现时达到了顶峰。在今后流逝的岁月中,它绝不会更加神圣崇高。我们只有长期不断地灌输和浸润在周围现实之中,才能理解什么是崇高和神圣的东西。不论我们的步伐快还是慢,路线已为我铺定。那就让我们的生命在体会感受中度过?!弊髡咔康飨质挡攀侨嗣怯Ω米プ〉?。

    A. 指望未来给予启迪。 C. 尊重过去的智慧。 D. 在悠闲的活动中花更多的时间。

    4. D. 神学和哲学。整篇文章都传递了这两个内容,特别是哲学推理论说。

    A. 历史和经济学。 B. 社会和人口。 C. 生物和物理。

    Passage Seven (Forecasting of Statistics)

    Nearly two thousand years have passed since a census decreed by Caesar Augustus become part of the greatest story ever told. Many things have changed in the intervening years. The hotel industry worries more about overbuilding than overcrowding, and if they had to meet an unexpected influx, few inns would have a manager to accommodate the weary guests. Now it is the census taker that does the traveling in the fond hope that a highly mobile population will stay long enough to get a good sampling. Methods of gathering, recording, and evaluating information have presumably been improved a great deal. And where then it was the modest purpose of Rome to obtain a simple head count as an adequate basis for levying taxes, now batteries of complicated statistical series furnished by governmental agencies and private organizations are eagerly scanned and interpreted by sages and seers to get a clue to future events. The Bible does not tell us how the Roman census takers made out, and as regards our more immediate concern, the reliability of present day economic forecasting, there are considerable differences of opinion. They were aired at the celebration of the 125th anniversary of the American Statistical Association. There was the thought that business forecasting might well be on its way from an art to a science, and some speakers talked about newfangled computers and high-falutin mathematical system in terms of excitement and endearment which we, at least in our younger years when these things mattered, would have associated more readily with the deion of a fair maiden. But others pointed to the deplorable record of highly esteemed forecasts and forecasters with a batting average below that of the Mets, and the President-elect of the Association cautioned that “high powered statistical methods are usually in order where the facts are crude and inadequate, the exact contrary of what crude and inadequate statisticians assume.” We left his birthday party somewhere between hope and despair and with the conviction, not really newly acquired, that proper statistical methods applied to ascertainable facts have their merits in economic forecasting as long as neither forecaster nor public is deluded into mistaking the delineation of probabilities and trends for a prediction of certainties of mathematical exactitude.

    1. Taxation in Roman days apparently was based on

    [A]. wealth. [B]. mobility. [C]. population. [D]. census takers.

    2. The American Statistical Association

    [A]. is converting statistical study from an art to a science.

    [B]. has an excellent record in business forecasting.

    [C]. is neither hopeful nor pessimistic.

    [D]. speaks with mathematical exactitude.

    3. The message the author wishes the reader to get is

    [A]. statisticians have not advanced since the days of the Roman.

    [B]. statistics is not as yet a science.

    [C]. statisticians love their machine.

    [D].computer is hopeful.

    4. The “greatest story ever told” referred to in the passage is the story of

    [A]. Christmas. [B]. The Mets.

    [C]. Moses. [D]. Roman Census Takers.

    Vocabulary

    1. census 人口调查

    2. decreed 分布法令

    3. influx 汇集,流入(人口或物)

    4. census taker 人口调查员

    5. in the intervening years 在这期间

    6. sampling 取样(调查)

    7. presumable 可能的,可推测的

    8. batteries 一连串,一系列

    9. sage 圣人;聪明的(人—)

    10. seer 先知

    11. newfangled 新型的(贬义)

    12. high-falutin 夸大的,夸张的

    13. deplorable 悲惨的,杂乱的

    14. batting average 平均成功率(原指击球平均得分数)

    15. ascertainable 可以确定的/确切的

    16. delineation 描述

    17. exactitude 精确

    难句译注

    1. The hotel industry worries more about overbuilding than overcrowding, and if they had to meet an unexpected influx, few inns would have a manager to accommodate the weary guests.

    [结构简析] 复合句。And后为虚拟条件句。

    [参考译文] 旅馆业就忧虑旅馆建的太多,不愁人太多。但是如果他们不得不碰到意想不到大批旅客,没有什么旅馆会有一位经理去安排疲惫不堪的客人的食宿。

    写作方法与文章大意

    文章论及“统计数字预测经济”。采用对比论证手法,还带点讽刺口吻,但气势宏伟。从两千年前恺撒·奥古斯都下令进行的人口调查说起,讲到现在的统计数字预测经济情况。得出应当正确对待预测数字的结论。

    答案祥解

    1. C. 人口。答案在第六句,“那时罗马计算人头作为征税的适当基础,目的很简单?!?/p>

    A. 财富。 B. 流动性。 C. 人口调查员。

    2. A. 正把统计研究从文科转变成理科。这是从第六句开始讲的一种观点?!跋衷?,政府机构和私人组织的一系列复杂的统计数字,由智者和先知人物殷切地浏览和解释以取得预先外未来事件的线索。圣经并没有告诉我们罗马的人口调查员是怎么调查统计的。至于我们当前更加关心的问题:目前经济预测的可靠性,意见分歧很大。美国统计协会125周年庆?;疃?,人们在大肆宣扬这些不同观点。有一种说法是经济预测可能正从文科转向科学(理科)发展。有些人兴高采烈大谈新型计算机和非常高级数学系统?!弊髡咚淙幻挥忻魉?,明眼人一看便知,艺术向科学转变正是美国统计协会在把统计学从文科转向理科。所以A. 对。

    B. 在商业预测方面具有杰出的记录。不对。实际上“平均成功率还低于the Mets”

    C. 既没有希望也不乐观。文内没有提及。只提作者他们半喜半忧离开协会。

    D. 以数学的精确性来说话。见下道题解释。协会部分人却有此看法“数学精确性?!?/p>

    3. B. 统计学(到现在为止)还不是一门科学(理科)。文章最后几句话?!傲臣菩岬闹飨哺娼渌蹈吣芡臣品ㄔ谑导什牧显己筒辉市淼牡胤揭话惴⒒诱?。这跟低级的,不合适的统计员所假定的正好相反。我们怀着忧“?!辈舭氲男那槔肟苣昵熳Q缁?,怀着确实不是新近才有的信念,相信应用于确切材料上恰当的统计法在经济预测中有它的贡献,只要预测人员和公众不受蒙蔽,误呆板所述概率和趋势当作数学精确无比的预测就行?!?/p>

    A. 统计员从罗马时代起就没向前进步过。 C. 统计员爱计算机。这两项文内没有提到。 D. 计算机前程远大。文内只讲了有些人怀着兴高采烈的心情大讲新型计算机和非常高级数学“系统”,暗示了计算机大有希望。但不是所有人都这样认为的。最重要的计算机的应用并不能改变这个事实:统计学不是立刻,而是文科。所以B. 对。

    4. A. 基督,圣诞节,指基督的诞生。圣经中的一个故事。

    B. the Mets. 圣经中率领希伯莱人出埃及的领袖,也作放债的犹太人讲。 C. 摩西。 D. 罗马人口调查员。

    Passage Eight (Wakefield Master’s Realism)

    Moreover, insofar as any interpretation of its author can be made from the five or six plays attributed to him, the Wake field Master is uniformly considered to be a man of sharp contemporary observation. He was, formally, perhaps clerically educated, as his Latin and music, his Biblical and patristic lore indicate. He is, still, celebrated mainly for his quick sympathy for the oppressed and forgotten man, his sharp eye for character, a ready ear for colloquial vernacular turns of speech and a humor alternately rude and boisterous, coarse and happy. Hence despite his conscious artistry as manifest in his feeling for intricate metrical and stanza forms, he is looked upon as a kind of medieval Steinbeck, indignantly angry at, uncompromisingly and even brutally realistic in presenting the plight of the agricultural poor.

    Thus taking the play and the author together, it is mow fairly conventional to regard the former as a kind of ultimate point in the secularization of the medieval drama. Hence much emphasis on it as depicting realistically humble manners and pastoral life in the bleak hills of the West Riding of Yorkshire on a typically cold bight of December 24th. After what are often regarded as almost “documentaries” given in the three successive monologues of the three shepherds, critics go on to affirm that the realism is then intensified into a burlesque mock-treatment of the Nativity. Finally as a sort of epilogue or after-thought in deference to the Biblical origins of the materials, the play slides back into an atavistic mood of early innocent reverence. Actually, as we shall see, the final scene is not only the culminating scene but perhaps the raison d’etre of introductory “realism.”

    There is much on the surface of the present play to support the conventional view of its mood of secular realism. All the same, the “realism” of the Wakefield Master is of a paradoxical turn. His wide knowledge of people, as well as books indicates no cloistered contemplative but one in close relation to his times. Still, that life was after all a predominantly religious one, a time which never neglected the belief that man was a rebellious and sinful creature in need of redemption, So deeply (one can hardly say “naively” of so sophisticated a writer) and implicitly religious is the Master that he is less able (or less willing) to present actual history realistically than is the author of the Brome “Abraham and Isaac”. His historical sense is even less realistic than that of Chaucer who just a few years before had done for his own time costume romances, such as The Knight’s Tale, Troilus and Cressida, etc. Moreover Chaucer had the excuse of highly romantic materials for taking liberties with history.

    1. Which of the following statements about the Wakefield Master is NOT True?

    [A]. He was Chaucer’s contemporary.

    [B]. He is remembered as the author of five or six realistic plays.

    [C]. He write like John Steinbeck.

    [D]. HE was an accomplished artist.

    2. By “patristic”, the author means

    [A]. realistic. [B]. patriotic

    [C]. superstitious. [C]. pertaining to the Christian Fathers.

    3. The statement about the “secularization of the medieval drama” refers to the

    [A]. introduction of mundane matters in religious plays.

    [B]. presentation of erudite material.

    [C]. use of contemporary introduction of religious themes in the early days.

    4. In subsequent paragraphs, we may expect the writer of this passage to

    [A]. justify his comparison with Steinbeck.

    [B]. present a point of view which attack the thought of the second paragraph.

    [C]. point out the anachronisms in the play.

    [D]. discuss the works of Chaucer.

    Vocabulary

    1. clerically educated 受过教会教育的

    2. lore 口头传说,口头文字

    3. patristic 有关早期基督教领袖的

    4. vernacular 方言

    5. boisterous 喧闹的

    6. metrical 韵律的

    7. stanza 诗节

    8. medieval 中世纪的

    9. plight 悲惨的命运

    10. secularization 世俗化,脱离教会

    11. pastoral 乡村的

    12. bleak 荒凉的

    13. documentary 记录文献的

    14. monologue 独白

    15. burlesque 诙谐或游戏诗文的,讽刺或滑稽的

    16. Nativity 基督的诞生

    17. epilogue 收场白

    18. deference 敬意,尊重

    19. atavistic 返祖的,隔代遗传的

    20. slide back to 滑回,这里指返回

    21. raison d’etre 存在的理由

    22. all the same 即便如此

    23. paradoxical turn 自相矛盾的说法

    24. cloistered 隐居的

    25. contemplative 好冥想的人(如僧侣)

    26. the contemplative life 宗教上冥想的生涯

    27. redemption 赎罪

    28. mundane 世俗的,现世的

    29. erudite 博学的,饱学之士

    30. anachronism 时代错误,与时代不合的事物

    难句译注

    1. Moreover, insofar as any interpretation of its author can be made from the five or six plays attributed to him, the Wake field Master is uniformly considered to be a man of sharp contemporary observation.

    [结构简析] insofar 义:只能,在……范围,常和as 连用。Attributed 过去分词,这里指属于韦克菲尔德大师写的剧本。

    [参考译文] 再则,就以五六本,被认为是韦克菲尔德·马斯脱所写的剧本为依据来分析说明这位作者,他是一位公认为对时代具有敏锐洞察力的戏剧作家。

    写作方法和文章大意

    这是一篇文学评论,评韦克菲尔德·马斯脱的戏剧。他是乔叟的同时代人,采用对比手法,作者对比了他和别的批评家对韦评价之差异来论证韦克菲尔德本人的观点,立场和作品的文体,语言,内容等各个方面。然后把他跟同时代人乔叟作比较,指出他的不足。

    答案祥解

    1. C. 他象斯坦贝克一样写。第一段作者说他是一位公认的对当时代具有敏锐洞察力的作家。现在仍然享有盛名。主要在于“他对被压迫和被遗忘的人民的同情,有着对人物性格了解的犀利眼光,对日常方言的曲折转意的“耳朵”。他的幽默粗放而又喧闹,粗鲁而又愉快。因此,尽管他有意识的艺术效果(性),明显表现在他对复杂韵律和诗节的感受力上,人们仍然尊他为中世纪的斯坦贝克,对贫苦农民悲惨命运的疾首愤怒,给以毫不妥协地甚至野性地真实描述”。这段话说明,文内两位作家之共同点是在内容观点上。而不是指一样的艺术形式上。韦克菲尔德写的是诗歌形式——韵文,而斯坦贝克是小说和散文剧。所以说他像斯坦贝克那样写就错了。故选C.

    A. 他是乔叟同时代人,见最后一句“他的历史观点的现实主义稍逊于乔叟。乔叟在几年前就为其时代写了一本传奇?!?B. 他是作为五或六本现实之剧本的作者而为人纪念。本文第一句话“只能从他写的五个或六个剧本来说明这位作者?!?D. 他是一位有成就的艺术家。

    2. D. Patristic 义:为关于早期基督教领袖的。第一段中his Biblical and Patristic lore indicate的意思是“他那有关圣经和早期基督教领袖们的歌谣?!?/p>

    A. 现实主义的。 B. 爱国的。 C. 迷信的。

    3. A. 在宗教剧中介绍世俗之事。见第二段中的secularization义:世俗化,脱离教会。这一整段都讲了韦剧中对世俗之事的描述:“拿剧本和作者两者一起讲的话,现在习惯于把他的剧本看作中世纪戏剧世俗化的一个顶点。因此,对他世俗化强调常以一个例子来说明,即他现实主义的描述12月24日一个寒冷的夜晚,在约克郡西区荒凉的山里的那种粗陋的习俗和乡村的生活;在常被人认为几乎是‘记录文献’的三个牧人三段连续的独白之后,批评家们继续认为他的现实主义在此时被强化到以讽刺嘲弄的口吻处理了基督的诞生。最后,作者收场白或事后的补充,对材料的来源圣经表示敬意。剧本又滑回到早期纯洁无邪(天真)的崇敬,一种返祖基调中去。事实上最后一幕不仅是全剧的高潮,也许还是“现实主义”引言存在的理由?!闭庖欢吻宄砻?。批评者认为宗教只是作者的收场白,计划外的添加剂而已。

    B. 表现渊博知识材料。 C. 应用当代材料。太笼统。当代也有宗教之事。

    D. 介绍早期宗教题材。

    4. B. 表达抨击第二段思想的观点。这个问题最难回答,其所以选择B,是因为本人作者并不同意流行的观点。他在讲完“常规看法”有,用引导来谈“纪实文献”和“现实主义”。这说明作者之含义并不是这两个词的本义。这段最后一句话“事实上,最后一幕……”表明:最后一幕有宗教内容,而“现实主义”不过处于introductory阶段。第三段点明作者的观点“现在的戏剧表面上有许多支持世俗现实主义模式的观点。韦之‘现实主义’有一个自相矛盾的特点。他对人和书本的广泛的了解表明:“他不是与世隔绝,而是和时代紧密相连的。再说,那时的生活毕竟是全方位的宗教。那时代绝不会忽视这种信仰——人是叛逆和有罪的生灵,需要赎罪。大师是那么深沉含蓄的信奉宗教,因而他比布罗姆作者更不可能(更不愿)现实主义地表现真正的历史。他的历史感现实性甚至比乔叟更不现实主义。乔叟早在前几年为他的时代写了‘类似’骑士的故事”?!疤芈抟览购涂死澄鞯隆钡却?。再说,乔叟以高度浪漫的材料为借口对历史事实任意处理?!彼运?,我们可以期望作者在下面一步发挥自己的观点,抨击第二段的看法。

    A. 他和斯坦贝克的比较是公平的。 C. 指出剧中时代错误。 D. 讨论乔叟作品。

    Passage Nine (The Continuity of the Religious Struggle in Britain)

    Though England was on the whole prosperous and hopeful, though by comparison with her neighbors she enjoyed internal peace, she could not evade the fact that the world of which she formed a part was torn by hatred and strife as fierce as any in human history. Men were still for from recognizing that two religions could exist side by side in the same society; they believed that the toleration of another religion different from their own. And hence necessarily false, must inevitably destroy such a society and bring the souls of all its members into danger of hell. So the struggle went on with increasing fury within each nation to impose a single creed upon every subject, and within the general society of Christendom to impose it upon every nation. In England the Reformers, or Protestants, aided by the power of the Crown, had at this stage triumphed, but over Europe as a whole Rome was beginning to recover some of the ground it had lost after Martin Luther’s revolt in the earlier part of the century. It did this in two ways, by the activities of its missionaries, as in parts of Germany, or by the military might of the Catholic Powers, as in the Low Countries, where the Dutch provinces were sometimes near their last extremity under the pressure of Spanish arms. Against England, the most important of all the Protestant nations to reconquer, military might was not yet possible because the Catholic Powers were too occupied and divided: and so, in the 1570’s Rome bent her efforts, as she had done a thousand years before in the days of Saint Augustine, to win England back by means of her missionaries.

    These were young Englishmen who had either never given up the old faith, or having done so, had returned to it and felt called to become priests. There being, of course, no Catholic seminaries left in England, they went abroad, at first quite easily, later with difficulty and danger, to study in the English colleges at Douai or Rome: the former established for the training of ordinary or secular clergy, the other for the member of the Society of Jesus, commonly known as Jesuits, a new Order established by St, Ignatius Loyola same thirty years before. The seculars came first; they achieved a success which even the most eager could hardly have expected. Cool-minded and well-informed men, like Cecil, had long surmised that the conversion of the English people to Protestantism was for from complete; many—Cecil thought even the majority—had conformed out of fear, self-interest or—possibly the commonest reason of all—sheer bewilderment at the rapid changes in doctrine and forms of worship imposed on them in so short a time. Thus it happened that the missionaries found a welcome, not only with the families who had secretly offered them hospitality if they came, but with many others whom their first hosts invited to meet them or passed them on to. They would land at the ports in disguise, as merchants, courtiers or what not, professing some plausible business in the country, and make by devious may for their first house of refuge. There they would administer the Sacraments and preach to the house holds and to such of the neighbors as their hosts trusted and presently go on to some other locality to which they were directed or from which they received a call.

    1. The main idea of this passage is

    [A]. The continuity of the religious struggle in Britain in new ways.

    [B]. The conversion of religion in Britain.

    [C]. The victory of the New religion in Britain.

    [D]. England became prosperous.

    2. What was Martin Luther’s religions?

    [A]. Buddhism. [B]. Protestantism. [C]. Catholicism. [D]. Orthodox.

    3. Through what way did the Rome recover some of the lost land?

    [A]. Civil and military ways. [B]. Propaganda and attack.

    [C]. Persuasion and criticism. [D]. Religious and military ways.

    4. What did the second paragraph mainly describe?

    [A]. The activities of missionaries in Britain.

    [B]. The conversion of English people to Protestantism was far from complete.

    [C]. The young in Britain began to convert to Catholicism

    [D]. Most families offered hospitality to missionaries.

    Vocabulary

    1. evade 避开,回避

    2. creed 教义,信条,主义

    3. the Crown 原义皇冠,在英国代表王权,王室/君主

    4. low Countries 低地国,指荷兰,卢森堡,比利时

    5. last extremity 最后阶段,绝境,临终。这里指那里人民临近 无可选择只能信奉天主教。

    6. bend one’s effort 竭尽全力

    7. seminary 高等中学,神学院/校

    8. surmise 猜度,臆测

    9. doctrine 教义

    10. plausible 貌似合理/公平的

    11. courtier 朝臣

    12. devious 绕来绕去的,迂回曲折的

    13. Sacrament 圣礼,圣事/餐

    14. secular 修道院外的,世俗的

    15. the society of Jesus 天主教的耶酥会

    16. Douai 杜埃(法国地名)

    17. Jesuit 天主耶酥会会士

    难句译注

    1. The Douay Bible 杜埃圣经(罗马天主教会核定的英译本圣经,于1582年及1609——1610你年又罗马天主教学者将新旧约分别从拉丁文译成英语在杜埃出版,可见当时杜埃是天主教势力的集中地之一。

    2. St. Ignatius Loyola 圣·罗耀拉 1491——1556 西班牙军人及天主教教士,耶酥会的创始人。

    3. Cecil (William Cecil) 西塞尔 1520——1598,英国政治家,女王伊丽莎白的得力大臣。

    4. Men were still for from recognizing that two religions could exist side by side in the same society; they believed that the toleration of another religion different from their own. And hence necessarily false, must inevitably destroy such a society and bring the souls of all its members into danger of hell.

    [结构简析] 用分号连接的两个分句,分句中都有that 是引导的宾从。

    [参考译文] 人们远远没有意识到两个宗教可以并存于同一个社会中;他们认为容忍不同于他们自己的宗教,因为也必然是错误的教派,不可避免的会破坏这样一个社会,从而把所有的成员的灵魂带进地狱的危险。

    5. Against England, the most important of all the Protestant nations to reconquer, military might was not yet possible because the Catholic Powers were too occupied and divided: and so, in the 1570’s Rome bent her efforts, as she had done a thousand years before in the days of Saint Augustine, to win England back by means of her missionaries

    [结构简析] the most important of all the Protestant nations to reconquer, 这句话是同位语,说明England. As she had done a thousand… ,这里的as =just to 义:就像,正如。

    [参考译文] 对付英国,需要重新征服的所有基督教国家中最重要的一国,动用军事力量不可能。因为天主教大国们太忙,太分裂;因此罗马于1570年代就像一千年前,在圣·奥古斯都统治时期它曾做过的那样,竭尽权力想通过传教方式把英国赢回来。

    写作方法与文章大意

    这篇文章论及“罗马教皇采用文武两手政策在欧洲,特别在英国,恢复旧教——天主教?!辈捎靡话愕骄咛宓男醋魇址???梢运涤纱蟮叫?。大的欧洲背景,最后落实在英国的具体做法。重点在英国。

    答案祥解

    1. A. 这篇文章的中心思想是“英国宗教斗争以新的方式继续进行?!?/p>

    B. 英国宗教的转变。 C. 新教在英国的胜利。 D. 英国变得繁荣。这三项都是文内谈到具体事情,不能作主题思想。

    2. B. 新教,基督教。因为罗马教皇推行的是天主教。这在第一段第四句明确点明:“在英国,宗教改革者,或者说基督教,在英国皇权的协助下,此时已取得胜利;而作为整个欧洲来说,罗马教皇已经开始恢复世纪初马丁·路德反叛后所失去的一些地盘?!甭矶 ぢ返率歉母镎?,也就是基督教。

    A. 佛教。 C. 天主教。 D. 东正教

    3. D. 宗教和武力。第一段第五句说明:“教皇用两种办法进行恢复,一种就像在部分德国地区进行的那样通过传教士的活动,另一种象在低地国里进行的,通过天主教国家的军事力量。那里荷兰的几个省份在西班牙的军事压力下,常常是被逼迫得几乎走投无路了。

    A. civil and military ways文武两手,civil范围太广,特别指民事的,非宗教的,文职的。这里不合适。 B. 宣传和抨击。 C. 劝说和批评。都不对。

    4. A. 传教士活动在英国。第二段的开始就讲到,“这些英国青年或者根本没有放弃老的信仰,或者放弃以后又重新归反旧教,应召成为牧师。英国当然没有剩下天主教神学院,他们就出国,开始很容易,后来,有困难甚至有危险,到杜?;蚵蘼碛⑽难г壕投?。前者专为培养一般或修道院外的牧师而建。后者是培养耶酥会教士,通称天主耶酥会会士,是约三十年前圣·罗耀拉创建的一种神职?!痹诙虐Q暗哪潦ο然乩?,他们取得了令人意想不到的成功。下面就是他们(这样指第一类修道士在英国活动情况)?!巴纺岳渚?,信息灵通人士,像西塞尔这种政治家,长期以来,一直猜度,英国人归反基督教新教的过程远远没有完成。许多人——因他们被在那么短的时期内强加到他们身上的信仰形式,飞快变更的教义搞糊涂了?!?/p>

    B. 英国人归反基督教的事情远远没有完成。 C. 在英国青年开始归反天主教。两项选择见上文解释。都是传教活动开始的原因。 D. 大多数家庭礼待传教士。这是第二段最后几行谈到这些传教士秘密来到英国后的情况。他们不仅受到老关系家庭欢迎。也受到第一次邀请他们的家庭欢迎。主人还把他们介绍给其它家庭。

    Passage Ten (Photography and Art)

    The earliest controversies about the relationship between photography and art centered on whether photograph’s fidelity to appearances and dependence on a machine allowed it to be a fine art as distinct from merely a practical art. Throughout the nineteenth century, the defence of photography was identical with the struggle to establish it as a fine art. Against the charge that photography was a soulless, mechanical copying of reality, photographers asserted that it was instead a privileged way of seeing, a revolt against commonplace vision, and no less worthy an art than painting.

    Ironically, now that photography is securely established as a fine art, many photographers find it pretentious or irrelevant to label it as such. Serious photographers variously claim to be finding, recording, impartially observing, witnessing events, exploring themselves—anything but making works of art. They are no longer willing to debate whether photography is or is not a fine art, except to proclaim that their own work is not involved with art. It shows the extent to which they simply take for granted the concept of art imposed by the triumph of Modernism: the better the art, the more subversive it is of the traditional aims of art.

    Photographers’ disclaimers of any interest in making art tell us more about the harried status of the contemporary notion of art than about whether photography is or is not art. For example, those photographers who suppose that, by taking pictures, they are getting away from the pretensions of art as exemplified by painting remind us of those Abstract Expressionist painters who imagined they were getting away from the intellectual austerity of classical Modernist painting by concentrating on the physical act of painting. Much of photography’s prestige today derives from the convergence of its aims with those of recent art, particularly with the dismissal of abstract art implicit in the phenomenon of Pop painting during the 1960’s. Appreciating photographs is a relief to sensibilities tired of the mental exertions demanded by abstract art. Classical Modernist painting—that is, abstract art as developed in different ways by Picasso, Kandinsky, and Matisse—presupposes highly developed skills of looking and a familiarity with other paintings and the history of art. Photography, like Pop painting, reassures viewers that art is not hard; photography seems to be more about its subjects than about art.

    Photography, however, has developed all the anxieties and self-consciousness of a classic Modernist art. Many professionals privately have begun to worry that the promotion of photography as an activity subversive of the traditional pretensions of art has gone so far that the public will forget that photography is a distinctive and exalted activity—in short, an art.

    1. What is the author mainly concerned with? The author is concerned with

    [A]. defining the Modernist attitude toward art.

    [B]. explaining how photography emerged as a fine art.

    [C]. explaining the attitude of serious contemporary photographers toward photography as art and placing those attitudes in their historical context.

    [D]. defining the various approaches that serious contemporary photographers take toward their art and assessing the value of each of those approaches.

    2. Which of the following adjectives best describes “the concept of art imposed by the triumph of Modernism” as the author represents it in lines 12—13?

    [A]. Objective [B]. Mechanical. [C]. Superficial. [D]. Paradoxical.

    3. Why does the author introduce Abstract Expressionist painter?

    [A]. He wants to provide an example of artists who, like serious contemporary photographers, disavowed traditionally accepted aims of modern art.

    [B]. He wants to set forth an analogy between the Abstract Expressionist painters and classical Modernist painters.

    [C]. He wants to provide a contrast to Pop artist and others.

    [D]. He wants to provide an explanation of why serious photography, like other contemporary visual forms, is not and should not pretend to be an art.

    4. How did the nineteenth-century defenders of photography stress the photography?

    [A]. They stressed photography was a means of making people happy.

    [B]. It was art for recording the world.

    [C]. It was a device for observing the world impartially.

    [D]. It was an art comparable to painting.

    Vocabulary

    1. fine arts 美术(指绘画,雕刻,建筑,诗歌,音乐等)

    2. assert 主张,声明,维护(权利)

    3. privileged 特殊的,享受特权的,特许的

    4. pretentious 狂妄的,做作的

    5. irrelevant 不相干的,无关的

    6. subversive 破坏性的,颠覆性的

    7. disclaimer 弃权者

    8. harry 掠夺,折磨

    9. austerity 严格,简朴

    10. convergence 聚合,集合点

    11. implicit 含蓄的

    12. distinctive 区别的,独特的

    13. exalted 高贵的,高尚的

    难句译注

    1. The earliest controversies about the relationship between photography and art centered on whether photograph’s fidelity to appearances and dependence on a machine allowed it to be a fine art as distinct from merely a practical art.

    [结构简析] 此句为主谓语+宾语从句。As distinct from … 句修饰fine art.

    [参考译文] 最早有关摄影和艺术关系的争论点集中在摄影对表象的忠实和对机器的依赖能否使它成为艺术,有别于仅仅是实用的美术。

    2. Against the charge that photography was a soulless, mechanical copying of reality, photographers asserted that it was instead a privileged way of seeing, a revolt against commonplace vision, and no less worthy an art than painting.

    [结构简析] 结构是主谓宾从。句子长是因为介词短语against the charge 后接同位说明语the photography was …宾语从句中有三组表语:a way of seeing, a revolt, an art.

    [参考译文] 正队这种指责:摄影是一种没有灵魂的,对现实机械性复制,摄影工作者声名摄影不是复制品,而是一种特殊的观察方式,是对平庸视觉的叛逆,和绘画一样有艺术价值。

    3. It shows the extent to which they simply take for granted the concept of art imposed by the triumph of Modernism: the better the art, the more subversive it is of the traditional aims of art.

    [结构简析] 句子结构为主从句,which引导宾从作介词to 的宾语,宾从中imposed by …分词短语修饰concept of art, the better …the more 是说明concept of art.

    [参考译文] 这说明他们就是把现代主义胜利所强加的艺术概念视为合理的,其合理程度是:艺术越强,对艺术的传统目的破坏得越大。

    4. Photographers’ disclaimers of any interest in making art tell us more about the harried status of the contemporary notion of art than about whether photography is or is not art.

    [结构简析] 名词disclaimer放弃,否认。上下文翻译中可译成动词含义,否认抛弃创作艺术的兴趣。

    [参考译文] 摄影师否认对创作艺术感性趣,他们告诉我们更多的是有关现代艺术概念的令人苦恼的情况,而不是摄影是不是艺术问题。

    5. Many professionals privately have begun to worry that the promotion of photography as an activity subversive of the traditional pretensions of art has gone so far that the public will forget that photography is a distinctive and exalted activity—in short, an art.

    [结构简析] 复合句。句内三个that clause. 第一个是worry的宾从;第二个是so far that 的句型。第三个是forget 之宾从。

    [参考译文] 许多专业摄影人员私下开始担忧,强调摄影是对传统艺术意图的颠覆活动的做法有些过分了,(活动的宣传走得太远)以致使公众忘记摄影是一种独特的高尚活动——总之,是一种艺术。

    写作方法与文章大意

    文章论及“摄影是否是艺术”问题,这样采用对比手法。一开始就讲述了19世纪摄影家为确立摄影是艺术而提出的种种依据,并把美术和摄影作比较,来反驳否定摄影的论点:忠于表象,以来机器,没有灵魂……

    确立的艺术后,他们为摆脱油画那种矫饰的艺术意图而努力推崇“艺术越佳,对艺术传统意图破坏越大”的论点。作者把这些摄影家和抽象表现主义画家相提并论,把摄影和流行画等同;和古典现代主义画家和画相对抗。

    最后结论是这种破坏传统艺术意图的活动不能走得太远,因为摄影毕竟是艺术,否则……。

    答案祥解

    1. C. 说明当代严肃的摄影家对摄影作为艺术的态度,并把他们这些态度放在历史的进程来观察。见文章大意。他们先为摄影是否是艺术而争辩,后为否定其艺术而努力。重点放在主题上。

    A. 界定显得主义者对艺术的态度。 B. 解释摄影是如何作为美术出现的。第一段涉及,见难句译注2。 D. 界定当代严肃摄影家对待他们艺术所具有的各种观点,并评定每种观点的价值。这三项只是文内提到的某些方面,不是主要的。

    2. D. 矛盾的。见难句译注3。

    A. 客观的。 B. 机械的。 C. 表面的。

    3. A. 他要列举这样艺术家的例子,他们象当代严肃的摄影家一样抛弃了传统上被接受的现代艺术目的。见第三段第二句:“举例说,这些认为通过拍照可以摆脱绘画所表现的艺术的矫饰的摄影家,使我们想起了那些抽象表现主义绘画的严肃的思想?!?/p>

    B. 他想在抽象表现主义画家和古典现代主义画家之间找出相似点。 C. 他要在流行艺术家和其它艺术家之间作一个对比。 D. 他想解释为什么严肃摄影,象其它当代视觉形式一样不是艺术,而且也不应当充作艺术。

    4. D. 摄影是一种艺术,可以和油画相比美。见难句译注2。

    A. 他们强调摄影是使人们快乐的手段。 B. 是记录世界的艺术。 C. 摄影是公正观察世界的工具。

    参考推荐:www.chaojixuezhang.com

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